Volume 5, Number 6, January - December, 2015

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The study was carried out from January to December 2014 within the Royal Manas National Park (RMNP) to come up with benchmark data on diversity of butterflies. It was found that during warmer months and at lower elevation maximum numbers of diversity of butterflies were encountered. A total of 181 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to five major families. Maximum numbers of species recorded were belonging to Nymphalidea and the least was Hesperiidae. Out of 181 species (appendix. 2) 25 species of them are listed in schedule I, II and IV of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (IWPA, 1972). Species such as Pale Wanderer Pareronia avatar (Moore), Panther Neurosigma doubledayi (westwood) Jezebel Palmfly Elymnias vasudeva (Moore), Tailed Sulphur Dercas verhuelli (Moore), Magpie Crow Euploea radmanthus (Fabricius), Common birdwing Troides Helena (Linnaeus), Plain Tiger Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus), Lime butterfly Papilio Linnaeus (Linnaeus) and Dark Archduke Lexias pardalis (Swinhoe) should be given conservation priority as they are found rarely in study area (Ref: Tshering Nidup. An annotated checklist of Butterflies from Royal Manas National Park, Gelephu, Bhutan. Spring, 2015, 5, 1-9); (Image: farm9.staticflickr.com).

ANALYSIS

An annotated checklist of Butterflies from Royal Manas National Park, Gelephu, Bhutan

Tshering Nidup

The study was carried out from January to December 2014 within the Royal Manas National Park (RMNP) to come up with benchmark data on diversity of butterflies. It was found that during warmer months and at lower elevation maximum numbers of diversity of butterflies were encountered. A total of 181 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to five major families. Maximum numbers of species recorded were belonging to Nymphalidea and the least was Hesperiidae. Out of 181 species (appendix. 2) 25 species of them are listed in schedule I, II and IV of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (IWPA, 1972). Species such as Pale Wanderer Pareronia avatar (Moore), Panther Neurosigma doubledayi (westwood) Jezebel Palmfly Elymnias vasudeva (Moore), Tailed Sulphur Dercas verhuelli (Moore), Magpie Crow Euploea radmanthus (Fabricius), Common birdwing Troides Helena (Linnaeus), Plain Tiger Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus), Lime butterfly Papilio Linnaeus (Linnaeus) and Dark Archduke Lexias pardalis (Swinhoe) should be given conservation priority as they are found rarely in study area

Spring, 2015, 5(6), 1-9

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ANALYSIS

Limnological study of Dwarkeshwar river water in the downstream at Arambagh, Hooghly district, West Bengal, India


Nilu Halder

Water is an important essential element for survive of life and it is directly linked with human civilization and welfare. The present work deals with the analyses of fifteen limnological parameters of water for the assessment of present water quality status of the river Dwarkeshwar in Hooghly district, West Bengal, India from two consecutive years 2009 and 2010.This river is a valuable resource of water for multifaceted purposes to the mankind. Increase of human population activity, urbanization, dumping of domestic sewages at the river shore or in the river and several anthropogenic activities threatening the physico-chemical characteristics of the river water. Still now, dissolved oxygen (DO) content, the most important parameter of river health is good and lied above the permissible limits between 4.0 to 6.0 mg/l prescribed by water quality standard (WHO,1993) and, water is found to be alkaline throughout the period of investigations. The total dissolved solids (TDS), chlorides (Cl-) and sulphates (SO4 2-) were observed comparatively in higher amounts which indicated the presence of sufficient organic substances of animal origin in the river water.

Spring, 2015, 5(6), 10-14

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ANALYSIS

An analysis of rural infrastructural resources and sustainable rural development in India

Balamurugan P

Rural infrastructural resources are crucial for agriculture, agro-industries and overall economic development of rural areas. They also incidentally provide basic amenities that improve the quality of life of rural poor. Provision of adequate and quality infrastructure in rural areas is necessary for increasing the productivity and efficiency of agriculture in the form of improving the credit absorbing capacity, enhancing the productivity of crops and livestock, generating employment, increasing farmers’ income, etc. and it makes a direct attack on minimizing the incidence of rural poverty. Rural development mainly depends on the existing infrastructural resources for all existing sectors for social, economic and cultural development of rural masses. India has a wide range of infrastructural resources devoted to nation’s development, in the form of road and transport, electricity, postal and telecommunication, education, health and sanitation, drinking water facilities, etc. In this context, the present paper is intended to conduct status analysis on the rural infrastructural resources in India and the need for their modernization for sustainable rural development. It also highlights the recent scenario on the rural infrastructural resources and their potentialities to the development of various rural sectors in India, which include agriculture, rural industries, banking and all other essential sectors of social and economic development of India. It is therefore concluded that the rural infrastructural resources are the backbone of the sustainable development of various rural sectors of our country.

Spring, 2015, 5(6), 15-24

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ANALYSIS

Avifaunal Checklist of Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) Campus in Jhansi District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Sonika Kushwaha, Akhilesh Kumar, Sachin Kumar Maheshwari

Humans have been always fascinated by birds. The human-bird association is since ancient times and is an intimate one. Birds have always served humans with incalculable services since they are consistent indicators of a healthy ecosystem. India is a home for about 1710 bird species. The estimated bird species on the earth is around 8600. At present the rapid developmental activities are posing threats to a number of bird species directly or indirectly. This study deals with study of feathered bipeds in the residential campus (township) of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), a second generation plant for the manufacturing of power transformers. BHEL campus supports about 71 bird species belonging to 30 families. This is a preliminary and basic effort to bring out the incredible bird fauna being maintained in the campus of an industrial and developed locomotive industry. It is an excellent example of sustainable development specifically regarding biodiversity of birds.

Spring, 2015, 5(6), 25-33

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ANALYSIS

Water quality analysis of four different ponds of Adimaly Panchayat of Idukki district

Divya S Rajan, Upasana U

Quality of water is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for irrigation and drinking. This paper deals with the study of physico-chemical parameters of water in four different ponds situated in Adimaly panchayat of Idukki district. The study was conducted in the monsoon season of 2014. The samples of water were collected and analysed using standard methods. The physico-chemical analysis was extensively carried out on each sample using known standard methods. The results of this analysis point out the fact that all the parameters were within permissible limits prescribed by BIS water standards. But the Chattupara pond got degraded due to the dumping of waste materials. The water qualities of other four ponds are comparatively good and can be used for domestic and irrigation purposes. The study indicates the need for conservation of the degraded fresh water ecosystem for the sustainable utilization of various fishery resources.

Spring, 2015, 5(6), 34-40

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