Butterflies are beautiful creation of nature. These species survival become very critical due to enhancement of corrosive pollutants in atmosphere. Corrosive pollutants react with moist oxygen and water to form inorganic and organic acids. The oxides of Carbon, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, oxides of haloens and hydride of sulphur form carbonic acid, nitric acid, nitrous acid, sulphuric acid, sulphrous acid and halo acids. Organic acids are formic acid, acetic acid and benzoic acid. Butterflies come in contact of these corrosive acids to form microbioelectrochemical corrosion cell. The oxidation and reduction reaction start on the body butterfly. It disturbs the biological clock of butterflies. This effect is destroying the life of butterflies. These corrosive pollutants reduce their population growth. The acid rain and global warming are also affect their life. The above mention acids convert into form of cloud and they come on the earth surface as water droplets. The acid rain produces corrosive behavior with butterflies. The concentration of carbon dioxide and methane gages are increased in atmosphere day by day. These gases are increasing the temperature of the earth and their life badly affected. The corrosive gases, acid rain and global warming are hindered their fertilization. The particulates are easily adhered with butterflies and they create various types of corrosive phenomenon on their body parts. The major corrosive phenomenon is galvanic which destroy their different body organs. The galvanic phenomenon checks their flying activities (Ref: Rajesh Kumar Singh. The Effect of Corrosive Pollutants on Butterfly. Spring, 2013, 1(1), 14-16).
Astrobiology reveal the habitable lifetime of planet Earth - based on our distance from the sun and temperatures at which it is possible for the planet to have liquid water. The research led by Andrew Rushby, from UEA's school of Environmental Sciences used stellar evolution models to estimate the end of a planet's habitable lifetime by determining when it will no longer be in the habitable zone. They estimate that Earth will cease to be habitable somewhere between 1.75 and 3.25 billion years from now. After this point, Earth will be in the 'hot zone' of the sun, with temperatures so high that the seas would evaporate. We would see a catastrophic and terminal extinction event for all life. The conditions for humans and other complex life will become impossible much sooner - and this is being accelerated by anthropogenic climate change. Humans would be in trouble with even a small increase in temperature, and near the end only microbes in niche environments would be able to endure the heat. The amount of habitable time on a planet is very important because it tells us about the potential for the evolution of complex life - which is likely to require a longer period of habitable conditions. Almost 1,000 planets outside our solar system have been identified by astronomers.
The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which absorbs most of the Sun's UV radiation. It contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3), although it is still very small with regard to ordinary oxygen, and is less than ten parts per million, the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere being only about 0.6 parts per million. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 20 to 30 kilometers (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day.
Butterflies are beautiful creation of nature. These species survival become very critical due to enhancement of corrosive pollutants in atmosphere. Corrosive pollutants react with moist oxygen and water to form inorganic and organic acids. The oxides of Carbon, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, oxides of haloens and hydride of sulphur form carbonic acid, nitric acid, nitrous acid, sulphuric acid, sulphrous acid and halo acids. Organic acids are formic acid, acetic acid and benzoic acid. Butterflies come in contact of these corrosive acids to form microbioelectrochemical corrosion cell. The oxidation and reduction reaction start on the body butterfly. It disturbs the biological clock of butterflies. This effect is destroying the life of butterflies. These corrosive pollutants reduce their population growth. The acid rain and global warming are also affect their life. The above mention acids convert into form of cloud and they come on the earth surface as water droplets. The acid rain produces corrosive behavior with butterflies. The concentration of carbon dioxide and methane gages are increased in atmosphere day by day. These gases are increasing the temperature of the earth and their life badly affected. The corrosive gases, acid rain and global warming are hindered their fertilization. The particulates are easily adhered with butterflies and they create various types of corrosive phenomenon on their body parts. The major corrosive phenomenon is galvanic which destroy their different body organs. The galvanic phenomenon checks their flying activities.
Most rural areas lack access to essential medicines/vaccines due to the unreliable power supply in Nigeria. Rural health centres will be critical in achieving lasting health improvements if an economic and sustainable power supply is maintained. In this paper, a solar powered health centre having an average energy consumption of 3517.5Watt-Hour was conceptualized and analysed. The analysis has shown that a solar powered health centre is 7% economical than fossil fuel (petrol) powered health centre in first year and will exponentially increase in coming years. Also, by comparing with PHCN (Power Holding Company of Nigeria), the breakeven point was found to be 2.5 yrs. The design analysis has shown that the solar powered health center is a stand-alone energy system and is economically viable. The solar energy resource is renewable, have zero or low GWP (global warming potential) and zero ODP (ozone depletion potential), it is environmentally friendly, noiseless and stress free during operation.
Climate change is one of the most important issues of today’s World. Climate scientists have concluded that the earth’s surface air temperature warmed by 0.6 ± 0.2ºC during the 20th century, accompanied by changes in the hydrologic cycle. Of all the climate elements, temperature plays a major role in detecting climate change brought about by urbanization and industrialization. This study focuses on the variability and trends of the mean annual, seasonal and monthly surface air temperature in Anand, Gujarat State during the period 1970-2009. This study investigated monthly, seasonal and annual climatic variability in Anand City based on mean maximum, mean minimum and mean air temperatures. One of the main results of this study is the confirmation of a significant warming trend in average temperatures in Anand, of about 1.5°C in the past 30 years, concentrated in spring and summer months. Analysis of maximum and minimum temperatures reveals a warming trend for the annual and all seasonal series. The warming trend for the summer and winter seasons is statistically significant. The air temperature time series are analyzed, so that the variability and trends can be described.
The Hooghly estuary, a distributary of Ganga-Bhagirathi River, located within the state of West Bengal, India, spanning across about 0.8 million ha is a positive estuary of mixohaline nature. The estuarine system lies between latitude 21 – 230N and longitude 88-890E. The Hooghly estuarine system is highly productive, since it receives substantial quantities of silt load and nutrients along with huge fresh water from Ganga. During tidal period significant amount of nutrients enter into the main channel and its tributaries making the entire system highly productive. There have been several studies on the pollution in the estuary has a thickly populated urban and highly industrialized centers of hinterland. These centers generated domestic and municipal sewage and industrial effluents, which find their way into the sea. The agricultural run off also add to the pollution load. These are a number of small and large industries on the banks of the river Hooghly. The industries which may cause pollution from point sources include paper, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, plastics, shellac, food, leather, jute, pesticides, oil etc. The studies have revealed that domestic/municipal sewage contribute maximum (68.95%) pollution to the estuary. The impact of pollution on biota was seen at short distance below the on fall but overall there has been a poor biological quality of the estuary near industries indicating a general deterioration in the ecological conditions. Heavy metals are the normal constituents in marine and estuarine environment. Pollution of Hooghly estuary with trace metals has been on the rise. Sedentary organisms are adversely attacked by the trace metal pollution. Dictated by market value and popular preference, Tenualosa ilisha (Hilsa fish) ranks as the prime fish and commercially the most important fishery of the estuary. The monsoon (July - October) is earmarked as the main season for hilsa fishery, as the fish from the in shore areas of the sea ascends upstream mainly for spawning seeking fresh water stretches of the estuary. The low yield of hilsa in present day situation has arrived a question to find out the factors. In this regard factors like indiscriminate killing of juveniles, establishment of Farakha Barrage, decreasing depth of estuary, pollution state etc have been mentioned by different workers. Serampore - Uttarpara belt is famous for hilsa landing but no report from this area is available. Hence the work has under taken. From Bally to Serampore, five stations (Bally, Uttarpara, Konnagar, Serampore and Ariadaha) have been selected. Physico-chemical natures of water and soil have been observed in each month round the year (2010). At the same time hilsa catch in different stations has also been recorded. Morphometric analysis of these fishes has also been worked out. From the observed data on hilsa fish catch it appears that in monsoon period (July to September) maximum hilsa fishes were caught during August and the majority of the fishes were 500 - 800 kg in weight. The range of average length and breadth were 24.62 to 27.36 cm (standard length 27.53 to 30.64 cm) and 7.16 to 9.06 cm (standard breadth 8.75 to 12.68 cm) respectively. These denote reduction of weight and size (Length and Breadth) of hilsa fishes in the estuary. Further, it has been seen that during 2005 the annual catch was observed as 90.25 kg/boat/station and within five years (2005-2010) the catch amount has been reduced to 41.50%. During the present study no adult fishes of 1.5 kg in weight were seen but during 2005 hilsa fishes bearing the same weight were observed in the estuary. During winter incidence (January to March) juvenile hilsa catch is also observed in low quantity. These indicate that hilsa fishes find inconvenience in migration to the estuary. The observed on the Physico-chemical parameters of water and soil reveals that dissolved oxygen content of water appears as 5.88 mgl-1 is not favorable for the growth of hilsa fish. Other parameters are not unfavorable for aquatic animals. Among the soil parameters available phosphorus (average 3.92mg/100gm), organic carbon (average 0.81 %) and heavy metals like zinc (average 55.28mg/100gm) and lead (average 28.00 mg/100gm) are marked relatively high. The total hydro-pedagogical conditions denote the pollution state of the water body in the estuary and adverse for growth and reproduction of hilsa fishes. Heavy metal pollution is detrimental to fish reproduction. Probably the pollution state leads to the uncongenial condition for the migration and reproduction of hilsa fishes. Perhaps for these reasons hilsa fishes move in another route leaving the pathway of Hooghly estuary. Present findings strongly demand the execution of immediate monitoring and control measures to protect the estuary enabling the steady migration of hilsa fishes as happened in ten or twenty years back.
Irrigation is one of the most important factors for the assured agricultural production. It plays a very vital role in Indian economy as it helps to grow the crops. Among the existing irrigation systems in India, irrigation from tanks are the traditional based as well as an appropriate indigenous technology in rural area. The rural tanks have become an important and predominant socio-economic component in India. Some Parts of South India have experienced this type of irrigation practices since vedic periods. In the states of Andhrapradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Maharastra and Kerala rural tanks have existed and they are called smallest water reservoirs behind earthen dams, constructed by kings and regional chieftains for the purpose of irrigation and local community use. After a long period, rural tanks have been neglected and they have lost their structural specifications and storage capacity, due to silting, weeding, encroachment and the people’s attraction towards modern types of irrigation and also the launch of large level irrigation projects - Dams. In this juncture, the paper aims to trace the total rural tanks and their efficient uses to the farming and community systems in South India. The rural tanks are the major source of water as a life saving mechanism that only provides the sustainable development in the villages of South India. A plan has been proposed to save and conserve the rural tank’s efficiency.
The large spatial variability in monsoon rainfall over India demands for regional models for predicting the seasonal rainfall. Hence, models were developed for predicting seasonal (June-September) rainfall of three regions (north, middle and south) of Gujarat using multiple regression technique.
Biogas technology has been introduced in the country in 1930 and in the Chhattisgarh area 1975. Biogas technology is essential to make the village farmers self sufficient for fuel and fertilizer and to improve family health and environment. In order to know the socio economic impact and district wise availability of total cooking gas and manure, the district wise status of biogas plant was collected and analyzed.
Knowledge of the distribution of dry spell during the monsoon period is very much essential for successful management of dry land agriculture. This information is very much essential for planning and management of crop and cropping pattern. Knowledge of onset and withdrawal of effective monsoon as well as, occurrence of critical dry spells and its duration helps in deciding sowing dates and in planning and management of different dry land crop for achieving optimum yields. Average seasonal rainfall during kharif season in different talukas of Buldhana district ranges from 650 to 837.4 mm. The average crop yield data for various crops in different taluka places during the study period was critically analyzed to decide the minimum duration of critical dry spell in Buldhana district. From results Average seasonal rainfall during kharif season in different talukas of Buldhana district ranges from 650 to 837.5 mm. Effective monsoon (OEM) normally starts from 20th June to 3th July (25-27 MW) in Buldhana district. It may start earliest by 4th June to 18thJune and latest by 30rd June to 31th July. On an average, there are 2 to 3 CDS(s) occur in Buldhana district. First CDS of 13 to 18 days duration occurs immediately after OEM during 12-30 June (24-26 MW), whereas the second CDS of 13 to 24 days occurs during 20th July to 4th August (29-31 MW).Third CDS of duration 17 to 23 days occurs during 16th August to 10th September (33-37 MW).Period and time of occurrence of number of critical dry spells affect the yield of mung and soybean crop to the considerable extent, followed by Sorghum crop. The duration of critical dry spell was found to be 16 for sorghum crop and 12 days for soybean and green gram crop. In-situ rainwater conservation practices and harvesting of excess rainwater needs to be adopted to overcome the impact of dry spell situation to some extent in the Buldhana district.