Volume 3, Number 7 - 9, January - March, 2013

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About the Cover

Polypharmacy is common in the elderly. It continues to increase, despite its known association with increased morbidity and mortality. It increases the risk of inappropriate use of medications, nonadherence, and adverse effects. Patients with polypharmacy also experience a decline in the activities of daily living. It also raises health care costs. Elderly hypertensives are at particular risk for polypharmacy. This stems from the need for multiple anti-hypertensive drugs for proper control of hypertension in this population, complicated by a host of co-morbid conditions such as arthritis, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus – all requiring concomitant treatment. Health care professionals should be congnizant of the risks of polypharmacy. Physicians need to monitor patient both prescription and non- prescription drug treatment periodically and educate both patients and their families on their proper usage (Agarwal N et al. Polypharmacy in Elderly Patients with Hypertension, Discovery Pharmacy, 2013, 3(8), 17-20)), (Illustration source: http://www.myneworleans.com /New-Orleans-Magazine/February-2007/HEALTH-POLYPHARMACY/)

PHARMACY OF THE MONTH

Intra- and Inter-Subject Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Some Drugs- A Review

Balasubramanian J, Tamil selvan

"Inter-individual variations of drugs pharmacokinetic parameters, resulting in fairly different plasma concentration-time profiles after administration of the same dose to different patients." Substantial differences in response to most drugs exist among patients

Discovery Pharmacy, 2013, 3(7), 3-5

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RESEARCH

An innovative floating gastro-retentive drug system: Design, formulation and in vitro evaluation

Kanaka Durga Devi N, Arun Y, Narasimha Rao N, Nikhitha P, Hemalatha B

The rationale of this research was to formulate and evaluate a gastro-retentive floating drug delivery system of Baclofen. Sustained release gastroretentive dosage forms enable prolonged and continuous input of the drug to the upper parts of gastrointestinal tract and improve the bioavailability of the drug that is characterized by narrow absorption window and short half-life. Floating tablets of Baclofen were prepared by effervescent approach by using sodium bicarbonate as the gas forming agent and hydrophilic matrix forming polymers like HPMC K4M ,HPMC K15M , HPMC K100M, Polyethylene oxide WSR-301,Polyethylene oxide WSR- 303 and Xanthan, guar gum. Direct compression technique was employed for the preparation of tablets. The prepared tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters (before compression), physical appearance, hardness, friability, weight variation, content uniformity, in-vitro buoyancy and in-vitro drug release. The optimized formulation (F12) containing xanthan gum-40% and sodium bicarbonate-12.5% sustained the drug release (98.47±0.71%) upto 24 h and remained buoyant for 24 h with a floating lag time of 20.33±6.03 seconds. The optimized formulation (F12) was subjected to various kinetic release investigations and it was found that the mechanism of drug release was predominantly non-fickian (anomalous) diffusion. Optimized formulation (F12) showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content, floating properties and drug release after storage at 40°C/75% RH for three months. Finally the formulation was found to be economical and may overcome the draw backs associated with the drug during its absorption.

Discovery Pharmacy, 2013, 3(7), 6-11

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PHARMACY OF THE MONTH

Bedaquiline: A steping stone in Multidrug resistance of Tuberclosis Disease

Balasubramanian J, Narayanan N

Bedaquiline has become the first drug to be approved in the US for the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB).The condition arises when Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause TB, develop resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, two key drugs for TB treatment. Bedquiline helps by inhibiting an enzyme the bacteria need to replicate and spread through the body. The drug has been approved through the ‘accelerated approval’ process, which puts drugs on the market earlier than would otherwise be possible while the companies continue to collect clinical trial data. It was developed by Janssen Therapeutics, a subsidiary of US healthcare giant Johnson & Johnson. The company says bedaquiline is the first TB drug with a new mechanism of action for 40 years.

Discovery Pharmacy, 2013, 3(8), 14-16

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RESEARCH

Polypharmacy in Elderly Patients with Hypertension

Agarwal N, Agarwal S

Polypharmacy is common in the elderly. It continues to increase, despite its known association with increased morbidity and mortality. It increases the risk of inappropriate use of medications, nonadherence, and adverse effects. Patients with polypharmacy also experience a decline in the activities of daily living. It also raises health care costs. Elderly hypertensives are at particular risk for polypharmacy. This stems from the need for multiple antihypertensive drugs for proper control of hypertension in this population, complicated by a host of co-morbid conditions such as arthritis, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus – all requiring concomitant treatment. Health care professionals should be congnizant of the risks of polypharmacy. Physicians need to monitor patient both prescription and non-prescription drug treatment periodically and educate both patients and their families on their proper usage.

Discovery Pharmacy, 2013, 3(8), 17-20

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PHARMACY OF THE MONTH

Cyclodextrins in Nanoparticle drug delivery system

Balasubramanian J, Narayanan N

Nanoparticles are being commonly researched as potential therapeutics for numerous programs in medication and have been proven to considerably enhance the movement, biodistribution, effectiveness, and protection information of several sessions of medication. One major type of nanoparticles includes the use of straight line, cyclodextrin-containing polymers (CDPs).

Discovery Pharmacy, 2013, 3(9), 23-24

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DATABASE

DABP: Database of antibacterial peptides

Udayakumar Mani, Sadhana Ravisankar, Sai Mukund Ramakrishnan

Antibacterial peptides are the effector’s molecules of innate immunity and act as the first line of host defense against pathogenic infections. Over the last few decades, the search for new drugs and drug targets has prompted an interest in these antibacterial peptides. Antibacterial peptides have been identified in various species ranging from bacteria, frogs to mammals, including humans. Generally they are having 15 to 45 amino acid residues and the net charge is positive. This paper describes a curated database DABP, an integrated online repository that provides access to information relevant to antibacterial peptides where information is collected from published literature and web resources. Peptide information can be searched using keywords such as peptide name, sequence, source and activity. Each entry of the DABP is referred by a peptide name, family, function, activity, site of expression, peptide sequence, sub cellular localization, gene name and taxonomy. Additional annotation includes cross-references to databases like Swissprot, PIR and PubMed. DABP is a useful for studying the structure–function relationship of antibacterial peptides. DABP was publicly available at the URL http://scbt.sastra.edu/DABP.

Discovery Pharmacy, 2013, 3(9), 25-26

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