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The inland wetlands support vast diversity of flora and fauna by providing them with suitable habitats. Samaspur Bird Sanctuary is a natural lake and dotted by several islets. Samaspur Bird Sanctuary (SBS) harbours excellent population of waterfowl and support a variety of other resident bird species and also attracts several migrants’ varieties. Birds help in the pollinization of plants and also good seed dispersal. A study was performed in Samaspur Bird Sanctuary (SBS) during January 2014 to March 2015. SBS covers the 799.371 Hectare area and provides breeding grounds to multiple populations of flora and fauna. Surveys were carried out seasonally and observations were made along line transects with the aid of 10x50 binoculars and Canon EOS 1000 D SLR camera. The documentation of biodiversity in any ecosystem is a requirement for better management and conservation. In the present study waterbirds diversity of Samaspur Bird Sanctuary, Rae Bareli District of Uttar Pradesh has been documented. A total of 78 species belonging to 22 families were recorded. This notable waterbirds diversity needs to be protected for nourishing the socioeconomic and ecosystem services provided by Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.
As an ‘ecotone’ between fresh and marine environments, estuaries generally contain a mixture of fresh water and oceanic species. With the sudden increase of population and rapid economic development, these areas are facing many ecological problems. Such problems have been designed mostly to an excess of nutrients, associated with industrial and municipal waste water. The deteriorating water quality has significantly affected the local tourism development. Taking in to account the Ashtamudi estuary’s deteriorating condition and the potentially far reaching implications of catastrophic degradation; the study was conducted to record the monthly variations of temperature that would definitely affect the dissolved oxygen concentration. This will give an idea about the variations associated with the water temperature as a result of anthropogenic activities and would make aware of the need for the proper conservation of the Thekkumbhagam creek of Ashtamudi estuary as the sustainability of the lives of the people around this creek is entirely dependent on the health status of this region. As estuaries undergo daily, seasonal and long term changes that can only be assessed with periodic monitoring, knowledge of water temperature is important because temperature is a critical factor in determining where marine organisms live and how well they thrive there. The study aimed at identifying the effects of wide temperature fluctuations and its fate that is relevant to water quality management.
Wetlands occupy a unique position by being one of the most productive and biologically rich ecosystems and yet being one of the most endangered. The livelihoods of millions of people in India also depend on these ecosystems. According to Wild Life Institute of India some 70- 80% of individual fresh water marshes and lakes in the indo-gangetic plain have been lost in the past 50 years. Wetlands in India occupy some 4 million hectares of land. Most of the world’s civilizations have developed and flourished near wetlands. Wetlands have accessible significant economic, ecological and cultural values. Some wetlands are exclusively used by people for food, fodder and building materials. The ecological functions of wetlands turn round around maintenance of water quality, hydrology, flood control, carbon cycle, climate stability, water cycle, shore stabilization, recharge of ground water etc. These values are difficult to assess and quantify economically. The present study is aimed at providing, in a nutshell, the distribution of wetlands, the value of wetlands, the causes and consequences of the loss of wetlands. A Study has been undertaken in Lucknow and its associated areas (Itaunza, Gosaiganj, Amethi, Mahona and Bakshi ka Taalab) during January 2013 to December 2014. Survey is being carried out seasonally, on foot or vehicle according to the area. Observations are being carried out using line transect method with the aid of 10x50 binoculars and data is supported with photography using Canon EOS 1000 D SLR camera. 11 includes wetlands Man-made wetland Behind Deen Dayal Park (PGI), Parewa wetland (MohanlalGanj), Nardahi Gunhari wetland (MohanlalGanj), Katotha Jheel (Near Amity International School, Gomtinagar), Behda pond (Village Nagar chongwa Mahona, Itaunza), Chandnapur Pond (Village Chandnapur, Mahona, Itaunza), Unai Jheel (Village Haldarpur, Itaunza), Maghaiya Purva Jheel ( Gosaiganj, Nawab Ali ka Purva in Gosaiganj), Dhan Talab (Aneeya Jheel in Amethi) and Sakri Jheel (Amethi) have been explored during study. All the wetlands are unprotected sites and significantly important and have biological and ecological importance. Some of them can be a significant place for ecotourism except Katotha Jheel, Chandnapur Pond and Dhan Talab due to encroachment of people and other anthropogenic activities. The various threats such as excessive fish cultivation and harvestation, soil-digging, overgrazing near wetland area, use of pesticides and non-biological fertilizers, draining for irrigation purpose, other developmental and anthropogenic activities, bird hunting, natural weed eradication through fire, excessive cultivation of water chestnut, cultivation along the marginal areas of wetland cause encroachment and reduction in water spread to the wetland area are studied.