Discovery life is an international journal belonging to innovative research, spanning the entire spectrum of life-biology (all taxonomic ranks such as; life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species) with age and ageing (geriatric medicine and gerontology). The scope of the articles are to be considered from molecular biology to evolution, such as; Cell Biology, Cell Signaling, Cell Cycle Regulation, Apoptosis, Developmental Biology, Biophysics, Genetics, Biochemistry, Endocrinology, Immunology, Physiology, Pharmacology, Psychology, Astrobiology, Cellular & Systems Neuroscience, Cancer Biology, Gene Expression, including Genomics & Proteomics, DNA and RNA Metabolism, including Transcription and Translation, Plant & Animal Biology, Immunology, Ecology, paleontology, geology, Evolutionary biology & Origin of life. Our journal publishes primary and advanced researches and reviews in all areas of biological-life including;
Evolutionary biology (Evolution, Evolution of taxa, Evolution of organs, Evolution of biological processes) in all levels of life; Biosphere > Ecosystem > Biocoenosis > Population > Organism > Organ system > Organ > Tissue > Cell > Organelle > Biomolecular complex > Macromolecule > Biomolecule > Atom > Quark
Infinite Evolution of Species (without any limit) & Extinction of species
Nanotechnology is gaining much importance in the current century because of its capability of modulating metals into their nanosize. Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the Indigofera aspalathoids leaf extract. The complete reduction of silver ions was observed after 48 h of reaction at 30° C under shaking condition. The color changes in reaction mixture (watery to dark brown color) was observed during the incubation period, because of the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture enables to produce particular color due to their specific properties. The synthesized nanoparticles are confirmed by color changes and it was characterized by UV- spectroscopy, FTIR and SEM studies.
Diabetic mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder, which affects millions of people. Diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The objective of this work is to identify the total serum protein(TP), total sialic acid(TSA), total carbohydrate, and total cholesterol levels in type2 Diabetes mellitus(DM) patients, and to compare the DM samples with a Healthy person’s (Non Diabetic)blood sample. The blood samples of two groups (Diabetic and Non Diabetic) were taken and analyzed for the glucose level followed by the biochemical tests. The results showed that TSA, Cholesterol and Carbohydrates are present more in the Diabetic patients samples compared to the healthy sample (Control). But the TP level didn’t show much difference. The increase in the TSA, Cholesterol and Carbohydrate levels can be the reason for the increase of DM. (These parameters can be used as a diagnostic index for the DM patients).
Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are plasmid mediated resistances endowing and capable of hydrolyzing broad spectrum Cephalosporins and Monobactams but inactive against Cephamycins and Imipenem. In addition, ESBL producing organism exhibit co-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics resulting in limitation of therapeutic options.The goal of this study was to detect ESBL production by clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae species, and to document their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. 50 urine specimens were used for the study and of which only 17 isolates were found out to be belonging Enterobacteriaceae group. These 17 isolates were subjected for the antibiotic sensitivity test using Kirby bauer method and 6 isolates were found to be ESBL producing, which were confirmed using the Combined Disc Method and double disc synergy method.
Alkaline protease is an extracellular enzyme usually excreted into the fermentation medium during growth (especially at sporulation). Alkaline proteases are produced by various bacteria such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas etc. and by fungi such as Aspergilllus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae etc. Alkaline proteases have found a wide application in several industrial processes such as an additive to detergents, in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. Alkaline protease holds more than 50% of the total enzyme market. It removes protein stains such as grass, blood, egg, milk and human sweat. As a result of the combined effect of surfactants and enzymes, stubborn stains can be removed from fibres. The immobilization procedure was adapted at industrial level to reduce the production time and production costs by recycling or reuse of the immobilized mycelia. Immobilised mycelia performed better over a wide range of temperature, pH and incubation period compared to free fungal mycelia. The mycelial mats were removed and inoculum was inoculated in the modified Reese’s medium and the crude extract thus obtained was tested for protein estimation by Lowry’s method. For immobilization sodium alginate matrix is used. Aspergillus niger was found to produce more amount of protease than Aspergillus flavus. Immobilized mycelia were found to withstand more environmental fluctuations. Immobilized mycelia can be recycled and is found to produce more protease when compared to free mycelia. Enzyme activity is determined by various enzymatic assays such as Protein agar plate assay and spectrophotometry.
Immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis are able to reduce azo group enzymatically and are used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of waste water containing azo dyes. Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were immobilized by entrapment in natural and synthetic polymerized matrices. The effects of operational condition (e.g., temperature, pH, dye concentration, etc.,) on microbial decolorization were investigated. The re-usability of the immobilized biocatalyst was evaluated with repeated batch decolonization experiment. Immobilized cells were less sensitive to agitation rates (dissolved oxygen levels) and pH as compared with suspended cells, while the effects of temperature were similar for both suspended and immobilized cells. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was used to describe the apparent correlation between the decolorization rate and the dye concentration. After four repeated experiments, the decolorization rate of the free cells decreased by nearly their original activity, respectively. The time required for 50% conversion (t1/2) remained nearly the same for CGN- and PAA- immobilized cells during four cycles including the stable decolonization efficiency of these immobilized cells.
I’m a tiny creature often ignored by mankind unless I infest their homes. Almost 88% of all Human beings kill us if they see us in their vicinity. Yet you are all familiar with the hardworking and persevering attitude of us. We are known for distributing our work evenly and work hard round the clock during favourable conditions to store food for unfavorable times. When the colony is threatened, our worker ants form a protective shield around the queen, while the soldier ants face the battle. Thus, man can learn many a lesson from us, a tiny seemingly insignificant creature.
Cowden syndrome also known as Cowden's disease and multiple hamartoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by multiple tumor-like growths called hamartomas. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTEN gene cause Cowden syndrome. Structure of the PTEN protein (1D5R) with a resolution of 2.10 Å was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular dynamics simulation of the PTEN protein was performed in water using Gromacs software which shows different stabilities when performed for a time period of 462ps. The stability of the PTEN protein was realized by computing root mean square deviation (RMSD) fluctuation of Carbon alpha back bone and potential energy value. From literature review, the compound acitretin was identified and docked with PTEN protein using Autodock & Insight-II software and best binding energy is studied.
SELFISH” DNA is a biological oddity previously unknown in animals. It provides an important new tool to study human aging. Such selfish mitochondrial DNA has been found before in plants, but not animals. Its discovery was made almost by accident during some genetic research being done on a nematode, Caenorhabditis briggsae – a type of small roundworm. DNA is the material that holds the basic genetic code for living organisms and through complex biological processes guides beneficial cellular functions. The mitochondria generally act for the benefit of the cell, even though it is somewhat separate.
Amenorrhea is the absence of menses. Women who enter menopause experience amenorrhea unless they receive hormone replacement therapy. In younger women, amenorrhea unrelated to pregnancy and lactation can be a distressing symptom. In addition to its psychologic morbidity, amenorrhea may be the manifesting feature of a wide array of anatomic and endocrine abnormalities. Amenorrhea results in impaired fertility. When estrogen levels are low, changes in mineral, glucose, and fat metabolism accompany amenorrhea. These metabolic changes affect bone and cardiovascular health, infertility, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and coronary heart disease in later life. Amenorrhea with hyperandrogenism, most commonly caused by the polycystic ovarian syndrome, may cause endometrial hyperplasia and increases the risk of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Because of many vitamins, amino acid, fatty acids and minerals are help as amenorrhea, establishing an accurate diagnosis can prove challenging. In this article, we outline one approach to the assessment of patients with amenorrhea and to the management of its common causes and consequences.
To evaluate the Water Quality Index (WQI) of Balasore district, water samples from twenty different locations were collected spreading over a period of one year from July 2010 to June 2011. This evaluation was made in three different seasons of the year (2010-2011) namely post monsoon, winter and summer season. The quality of water was evaluated by testing various physic-chemical parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Total Alkalinity (TA), Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Iron and Chloride content. The WQI value of S8 is 86.78 is maximum and the value of S5 is 72.76 is minimum. Analysis of these water samples indicate that the sampling area belongs to slightly pollution categories. Water Quality Index (WQI) of all samples indicates that the water is not suitable for direct consumption and is not within the permissible level. After treatment of that water samples can be used for drinking purpose.