Hepatitis C is a worldwide liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. There is no vaccine available in the market for the treatment of this virus. There is a strong requirement to develop an antiviral compound that can modulate/target the HCV genotypes. Medicinal plants produced many active components/secondary metabolites, which can modulate many types of disorders, pathways and cure the problem. In this research we used, 40 active components of different medicinal plant species from Uttarakhand region against HCV NS3/4A protease. On the basis of docking score/ binding energy we can say compound Berberine (-83.3), Berlambine (-84.81), and Quercetin (-85.71) shows best result in all 40 compounds with comparing known inhibitor Olysio (-83.78). All active components were bound deeply with the active site of NS3/4A. Compound Berberine showed the best binding with targeted protein (PDB ID: 1DY8) and other compounds also showed reliable interaction and docking score with the protein. So we can hypothesize that compound Berberine (-83.3), Berlambine (-84.81), and Quercetin (-85.71) can block/ modulate HCV replication and behave as a potent inhibitor drug in future (Ref: Prabhakar Semwal, Raghav Tripathi, Ashish Thapliyal. Herbal Active Components act as Inhibitor against HCV NS3/4A protease by Using Bioinformatics Approach. Drug Discovery, 2015, 10(23), 15-21).
The success of targeted biologic therapy against rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions has led to much interest in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis, in the hope of defining novel therapeutic targets. One of the most important of these targets have been the ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 aggrecanases, enzymes that are essential for the early breakdown of aggrecan, a key step in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis.
Hepatitis C is a worldwide liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. There is no vaccine available in the market for the treatment of this virus. There is a strong requirement to develop an antiviral compound that can modulate/target the HCV genotypes. Medicinal plants produced many active components/secondary metabolites, which can modulate many types of disorders, pathways and cure the problem.
Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels. It mostly occurs where Vascular endothelial Growth factors (VEGF) gets triggered and leads to Endothelial Cell proliferation and thus leading to formation of new blood vessels. Inflammation and free radical formation and are the imperative factors for the activation of VEGF and endothelial proliferation so the plants were selected which have already proven antiinflammatory, antioxidant ad anti-proliferative activity. i. e. Azadirachta indica, Rheum palmatum, Rosa centifolia. Recently Na+ channels are identified on the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries but the exact role of channels yet not been established so we have selected Phenytoin a Na+ channel blocker. To find out the effect of Azadirachta indica, Rheum palmatum, Rosa centifolia and Phenytoin sodium for its anti-angiogenic property. In vivo Sponge Implantation method was used to induce angiogenesis in male Wistar rats by considering various parameters like capillary density, haemoglobin content, weight of spleen, thymus and implanted sponge etc. Among all the test drugs Azadirachta indica has shown some promising anti-angiogenic effect in all parameters at the dose of 0.5 mg and 5 mg. Phenytoin and Rheum palmatum also have shown protection but not as good as Azadirachta indica while Rosa centifolia has not shown any protection for any of the parameters. Azadirachta indica has shown strong anti-angiogenic property. Phenytoin sodium and Rheum palmatum has also shown anti-angiogenic property but not as good as Azadirachta indica.