Phases of drug discovery and development are illustrated by Onion model. Developing drugs is a very complex process and very expensive. When the total cost of almost a billion dollars over 10-15 years, the cost of the final stages of friction are important to reduce as much as possible. The process of drug discovery begins with the identification of a medical need, including a decision on the adequacy of existing treatments. This analysis and assessment of current knowledge of the target disease, the hypotheses on how to potentially improve the treatment - ie, efficiency, safety and mechanical improvements in the method in advance novel drug therapy in patients with the disease target? Based on these assumptions, the specific objectives set for the project. Then, the forecast pharmacoinformatic and physiologically pharmacokinetic simulations (IVlead identification and optimization) can be implemented to model the preclinical, which is usually built into the stage of discovery in-silico lead to lower cost. Key next steps include detecting relevant biological activity (a "hit") for a structurally novel compound in vitro, then finding an agent linked to the activity in vivo in an appropriate animal model, followed by maximizing this activity in the preparation of similar structures, and finally choosing a drug as the drug candidate. This drug candidate was done for the toxicological tests on animals, as the law requires. If the substance passes all these tests, all the accumulated research data collected and presented as a New Drug Application (IND) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) United States (or equivalent in other countries) before clinical trials began. In the clinical evaluation is under assessment in healthy volunteers of toleration (Phase I), efficacy and dosing in patients (phase II), followed by extensive studies of thousands of patients appropriate to develop a wide database of safety and efficacy. In clinical trials, the patient sample is chosen by the mode of biomarker (genotypic or phenotypic). Drug candidates for rare (4-7%) that survive this series of tests of development, a New Drug Application (NDA) containing all the accumulated research data will be archived for further consideration by experts of the FDA. Only the approval of new drugs can be offered to physicians and patients in the treatment of disease, in which it was, designed.
F. religiosa is a sacred tree native to India where it grows up to elevations of 5,000 ft (1,524 m) (Neal 1948). It is known to be a sacred plant in India and since ancient times it is widely being used to treat various ailments like skin diseases, heart diseases, constipation, dysentery, snakebite and important constituent of various traditional herbal preparations like shankha vati, chandraprabha vati, kaminivindravan rasa.
Chemoprevention is regarded as one of the most promising and realistic approaches in the prevention of cancer, several bioactive compound present in fruit & vegetable have revealed their cancer curative potential on lung cancer. d-Limonene is one such naturally occurring terpenoid widely found in citrus fruits
A rapid sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of Suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). The chromatographic system utilized a C18 column with the detector wavelength set at 240nm.
Cleistanthus is a plant genus of the family Phyllanthaceae. Cleistanthus collinus plant is well known for its toxicity. All parts of the plants are reported to be highly toxic.
Anticancer, or antineoplastic, drugs are used to treat malignancies, or cancerous growths. Drug therapy may be used alone, or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy. Suppression of the immune system and its ability to fight infection, immunosuppressant may result from certain diseases, such as AIDS or lymphoma, or from certain drugs, such as some of those used to treat cancer
Opuntia commonly known as prickly pears is used by humans as therapeutic medicine for past centuries. However, there is no report on the anti-microbial activity of the species Opuntia fragilis. This study concentrates on the anti-microbial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria by disc diffusion assay method.
On August 9, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for vincristine sulfate liposome injection (Marqibo®, made by Talon Therapeutics, Inc.) for the treatment of adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph –) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second or greater relapse or whose disease has progressed following two or more anti-leukemia therapies
Vascepa (icosapent ethyl) is an ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA reduces hepatic very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG) synthesis and/or secretion and enhances TG clearance from circulating VLDL particles