Volume 1, Number 1-3, October - December, 2012

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About the Cover

Blood-borne disease
A blood-borne disease is one that can be spread through contamination by blood. It includes a broad spectrum of infectious conditions that reach their target tissue through the circulation of blood. Blood borne pathogens are microorganisms in the blood or other body fluids that can cause illness and disease in people. These microorganisms can be transmitted through contact with contaminated blood and body fluids. The most common examples are HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Blood poses the greatest threat to health in a laboratory or clinical setting due to needle stick injuries. Blood for blood transfusion is screened for many blood-borne diseases. Blood borne pathogens are transmitted through contact with infected human blood and other body fluids such as: Semen, Vaginal secretions, Cerebrospinal fluid, Synovial fluid, Pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, Amniotic fluid and Saliva. Unbroken skin forms an impervious barrier against blood borne pathogens. However, infected blood can enter the system through: Open sores, Cuts, Abrasions, Acne and any sort of damaged or broken skin such as sunburn or blisters. Blood borne pathogens may also be transmitted through the mucous membranes of the Eyes, Nose and Mouth. Exposure to blood borne pathogens can occur through many mechanisms: needle sticks, being splashed with blood or body fluids on the mucous membranes. However, contact with blood borne pathogens falls into two main categories: Direct – via an open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane and Indirect – via punctures by contaminated sharps or needles. Depending upon the nature of the causative agents, blood-borne diseases fall into four categories of which parasites and viruses are far more prevalent than bacteria and prions. Malaria is one of the most common blood-borne diseases on earth, infecting nearly a half-billion people. The malaria parasite lives and grows in circulating red blood cells during one phase of its life cycle. Mosquitoes are the primary vectors for malaria, disseminating the parasite as they take blood meals from different people. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most deadly blood-borne condition of viral etiology. The virus has infected hundreds of millions of people, who live in sub- Saharan Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. HIV is, in fact, primarily a sexually transmitted disease in which blood transmission (often by transfusion) is much less frequent than sexual transmission. The pathological manifestations of HIV reflect the fact that it destroys a category of blood cells called lymphocytes that are vital to normal immune function. Infection due to impaired immune activity is the leading cause of death in people affected with the HIV virus. Blood-borne bacterial infections are uncommon in people with normal immune function. Insect bites often seed the blood with bacteria. The body's bactericidal response is so powerful that a small number of bacteria entering the bloodstream are quickly cleared. However, bacteria that contaminate blood or blood products can multiply to the point that transfusion introduces an overwhelming number of organisms. Chills, high fever, shock, and death can occur quickly following transfusion of a contaminated blood product. The bacterium Yersina enterocolitica is a common culprit in this scenario. Only scrupulous sterility during blood collection, processing, and storage can eliminate this potentially deadly problem. Prions consist solely of protein. These protein molecules control the machinery of cells and producing disease. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans results from a prion that can be transmitted by blood transfusion. The condition produces brain deterioration and death. It is important to note that many diseases do not manifest themselves immediately. Therefore, it can often be difficult to track the source of an exposure. Many of the symptoms of some diseases can be quite similar to the flu. Therefore, if flu-like symptoms do not subside in a normal amount of time with normal treatment methods, one may need to have blood tests performed to rule out other possible causes.

DISEASE OF THE MONTH

Disease – impairment of normal function

Brithvi V

A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases.

Disease, 2012, 1(1), 3-5

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ANALYSIS

Celiac Disease is an autoimmune syndrome - A perspective

Eswaralakshmi R

Celiac disease is a disease of the small intestine. The small intestine is a 22 foot long tube that begins at the stomach and ends at the large intestine (colon). The first 10 inches (25cm) of the small intestine (the part that is attached to the stomach) is called the duodenum, the middle part is called the jejunum, and the last part (the part that is attached to the colon) is called ileum

Disease, 2012, 1(1), 6-7

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ANALYSIS

A review on role of D-chiro inositol in stein-leventhal syndrome

Balasubramanian J, Shahul Hammed Maraicar K, Vijayakumar N, Azhageshraj K, Senthil kumar M

Stein-Leventhal Syndrome or Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause of chronic ovulation infertility in women in fertile period, and it’s characterized by an increased production of androgens and estrogens. The administration of D-chiro-inositol, a B complex vitamin, was associated with a decreased of serum testosterone and simultaneously, due to its ability to increase insulin sensitivity, women who received D-chiro-inositol showed a great improvement of the ovulary function. Besides, the supplementation of inositol improves the oocytes’ quality and increase the number of oocytes collected after ovarian stimulation in patients undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).

Disease, 2012, 1(1), 8-10

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ANALYSIS

Influence of luteinizing hormone receptor gene in the women with PCOS

Preethi K, Elizabeth Rani Juneius

PCOS – polycystic ovarian syndrome is a reproductive hormonal disorder which is because of the cysts formation in the ovaries after puberty. It is diagnosed by the ultrasound scanning of ovaries. Luteinizing hormone is commonly known as lutropin produced from anterior pituitary which is released by the hypothalamus. The luteinizing hormone receptor gene is responsible for this reproductive syndrome. The main objective of this study is to analyze luteinizing hormone receptor gene in women with PCOS and the case history of PCOS patients by analysing the biochemical characters of total soluble protein , carbohydrates and cholesterol level with determining the hormonal levels of LH,FSH and PROLACTIN of PCOS patients. The blood from the normal women and the women with PCOS were collected with volunteers concern.

Disease, 2012, 1(1), 11-14

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DISEASE OF THE MONTH

Reduction of risk of heart disease by Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Brithvi V

Heart disease may be a leading cause of death; there are some key heart diseases which can be prevented. Smoking or using tobacco is one of the most significant risk factors for developing heart disease. Chemicals in tobacco can damage your heart and blood vessels, leading to narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis).

Disease, 2012, 1(2), 17-18

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DISEASE OF THE MONTH

A Comprehensive Review on Atherosclerosis

Balasubramanian J, Narayanan N, Azhageshraj K

Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. The name comes from the Greek words athero (meaning gruel or paste) and sclerosis (hardness). It's the term for the process of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin (a clotting material in the blood) building up in the inner lining of an artery. The buildup that results are called plaque.Atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis) is a disease in which plaque (plak) builds up inside your arteries.

Disease, 2012, 1(3), 21-23

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RESEARCH

Prediabetes: An Alarming Epidemic in Schizophrenic Patients

Shashi K. Agarwal

Diabetes has reached pandemic proportions. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in patients with schizophrenia when compared to the general population. Besides the traditionally recognized risk factors, this population also suffers from higher BMI. They are more likely to be prescribed a second generation anti-psychotic drug. Poor living conditions and unhealthy life styles also play a role.

Disease, 2012, 1(3), 24-27

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