Discovery Science Journal is an international, peer reviewed Magazine. Discovery Science Published from July 2012. Discovery Science publishes innovative and groundbreaking research and reviews. Discovery Science turns to be a platform for scientific discussion of all the aspects of science, nature, and technology. Discovery Science has been created to facilitate exchange of information about the latest and future scientific discoveries and stimulate the global research activities on earth. Discovery Science publishes primary and advanced research works in every discipline. Discovery Science Journal publishes following formats of research works as follows:
Smoking is the greatest avoidable cause of disease and death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1.1 billion people worldwide regularly smoke tobacco products. Non- smokers are at risk because of inhalation of passive smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Exposure to passive smoking (ETS) is harmful to the health of human being particularly hazardous to children. More and more research is showing the negative effects of passive smoking on health Researchers found significant dose-dependent associations between passive smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease, and all forms of cancer, and all respiratory and circulatory diseases. The home is the place where children are most exposed to second hand smoke; where they spend much of their early life in the presence of their parents. Every day more than 15 million children are exposed to smoke in their homes 1998 study using ultrasound imaging to measure atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries found that passive smoking increased the thickness of the inner lining of the arteries by 20%. This indicates that passive smoking can increase the progression of atherosclerosis Children are very sensitive to the effects, due to the fact that their bodies are still growing and developing and they breathe faster than adults and therefore may inhale more smoke. Children who live in homes where parents smoke have high levels (more than five times) of cotinine (a biological marker of secondhand smoke exposure) than children who have nonsmoking parents. Also children with childhood ETS exposure were more likely to become smokers in adolescent or in adulthood.
The availability and access to fresh water is one of the major challenges the world is facing today. The existing techniques are either not accessible or too expensive for the poor. This paper presents a low cost model to purify water by applying the principles of greenhouse effect and distillation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate green distillation as a viable means of purifying water for human consumption and as a sustainable alternative to the conventional distillation technology. Water output efficiency up to 84.7% has been achieved and the total dissolved solids in the distilled water were 20mg/l.
Data mining is the practice of automatically searching large stores of data to discover patterns and trends that go beyond simple analysis. Data mining uses sophisticated mathematical algorithms to segment the data and evaluate the probability of future events. Classification is a data mining process that assigns items in a collection to target categories or classes. The goal of classification is to accurately predict the target class for each case in the data. Some classification algorithms used in data mining include Apriori, Decision Trees and Naïve Bayes algorithm. In this paper, we apply these classification algorithms to a log data and carry out a comparative analysis to find out which algorithm is best suited for such analysis.
The present investigation was aimed to assess the impact of Achras sapota and Cassia auriculata different extracts for their insecticidal, repellent and adult emergence activities tested against Callosobruchus maculatus, a stored grain pest and they were tested in the laboratory. Insecticidal activity of Achras sapota and Cassia auriculata extracts of acetone, hexane, diethylether, dichloromethane and methanol were tested against Callosobruchus maculatus at three different concentrations. The order of the efficacy of the insect mortality was as follows; methanol> dichloromethane> hexane> diethylether> acetone extracts of Achras sapota and Cassia auriculata. The maximum Insecticidal activity 100% noted at 150ppm, 72hr of methanol extracts of both selected plants and followed by 99.0%, 98.0%, 98.0% and 94.0% recorded at 150ppm, 72hr of dichloromethane and hexane extract of Achras sapota and Cassia auriculata, respectively. In repellent activity of Achras sapota methanol extract showed powerful repellent against Callosobruchus maculatus beetles at all the concentration and this property can be clearly seen from the values at 50ppm (-0.53 and -0.76 in 1h and 6hr respectively), 100ppm (-0.64 and -0.89 in 1h and 6h respectively) and 150ppm (-0.81 and -0.93 in 1h and 6h respectively). In Cassia auriculata methanol extract showed powerful repellent against Callosobruchus maculatus beetles at all the concentration and this property can be clearly seen from the values at 50ppm (-0.51 and -0.73 in 1h and 6hr respectively), 100ppm (-0.61 and -0.87 in 1h and 6h respectively) and 150ppm (-0.79 and -0.91 in 1h and 6h respectively). The maximum repellent activity recorded in methanol and followed by dichloromethane, hexane, diethylether and acetone extract of Achras sapota and Cassia auriculata. The maximum 0% adults emergence was observed in the treated with methanol and dichloromethane extract of Achras sapota and Cassia auriculata at maximum concentration 150ppm respectively. Overall Achras sapota showed most active than Cassia auriculata against Callosobruchus maculatus. It is evident from the results obtained in the present work that the leaf extract of Achras sapota and Cassia auriculata could be used effectively in insecticidal, repellent and adult emergence activities observed against stored products pest Callosobruchus maculatus.
The study of effect of spirulina as a feed supplement on survival and growth of Catla catla has been conducted in the departmental ponds for a period of 90 days. Highest value for survival and growth gain in the fishes was observed in feed impregnated with 5% Spirulina.
Total 25 strains of Spirulina were isolated from various sites of Meerut, India in order to determine the biomass yield and lipid content. Out of which, only 8 strains, namely WS-02, WS-26, WS-30, WS-41, WS-49, SS-07, SS-13 and SS-24 were found lipid producing, while the strain WS-41 was the maximum lipid producer (26.36±1.04 % of dry wt.). This strain was further investigated for the effect of various environmental factors viz., nitrogen source, phosphorous source, carbon source, NaCl, pH, Tween-80 on lipid content and biomass yield. Lipid content was determined as percentage of dry weight of biomass. A maximum lipid percentage (31.09±0.58 % of dry wt.) of WS-41 was observed at 0.2M KNO3, 0.6 mM KH2PO4, 0.5 M NaCl and pH 9. Maximum biomass (3.43±0.25 g/l) was observed at 3.2 M KNO3, 0.6mM KH2PO4, 0.15M NaCl and pH 9. Thus, it can be concluded that Spirulina strain WS-41 is a high lipid producer which can be a good source for food supplement as well as biofuel production in future.