Discovery Science Journal is an international, peer reviewed Magazine. Discovery Science Published from July 2012. Discovery Science publishes innovative and groundbreaking research and reviews. Discovery Science turns to be a platform for scientific discussion of all the aspects of science, nature, and technology. Discovery Science has been created to facilitate exchange of information about the latest and future scientific discoveries and stimulate the global research activities on earth. Discovery Science publishes primary and advanced research works in every discipline. Discovery Science Journal publishes following formats of research works as follows:
Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with receptors of taste buds. Taste, along with smell (olfaction) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (which also handles touch for texture, also pain, and temperature), determines flavors, the sensory impressions of food or other substances
The environmental friendly ‘vermicomposting technology’ can very well be adopted for converting wastes into wealth. ‘Vermicomposting’ is a process of composting, featuring the addition of certain species of earthworms to enhance the process of waste conversion and to produce a better end product. Since the organic material passes through the earthworm gut it, the resulting earthworm castings are abundant in microbial activity, plant growth regulators and fortified with microbial enzymes as well. Earthworms can hasten the composting process to a significant extent, with production of a better quality of composts as compared with those prepared through traditional methods. A study has been carried out to assess the nutritional content of vermicomposts. In case of nitrogen, except coffee pulp compost, all other composts recorded more nitrogen over their respective raw materials. Among composts and vermicomposts, vermicompost recorded more nitrogen. In case of total phosphorus, the content enhanced due to composting and vermicomposting. The increase was more pronounced with earthworm activity. Even though vermicompost recorded more phosphorus, the content varied with waste materials used. The differences in the result could be attributed to the differences in the chemical nature of the initial raw material. The results on total potassium content of various composts showed that the content decreased drastically during conventional composting. However, the potassium content of various composts enhanced due to earthworm activity.
S-triazine and thiocarbamide group containing drug create their own identity in the drug, pharmaceutical and medicinal sciences in last four decades. Hence, density and sound velocity of some biologically important substituted triazinothiocarbamides were measured at 30°C in 70% dioxane-water mixture. The interferometric measurements of recently synthesized drugs have been carried out for solutions of 1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl)-S-triazino-3- phenylthiocarbamide (L1), 1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl)-S-triazino-3-ethylthiocarbamide (L2) and 1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl)-S-triazino-3-methylthiocarbamide (L3) at various concentrations. This data have been used to determine various acoustic / thermodynamic parameters. These properties are used to interpret weak molecular solute-solvent, solute-solute interactions in the system. The data and result obtained during this investigation gave detail information regarding drug absorption, transmission, activity and effect of these drugs which is base of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of any drug. Taking all these things into consideration this research work was carried out.
Proteins are the building blocks of organisms. They involve in diverse functions starting from the structural support to the cells to immune support to the body which helps to fight the diseases. There are many ways in which the proteins can be studied namely in-vivo, in-vitro, in-situ and in-silico. Today, insilico studies are preferred as it minimizes the time and cost of studying proteins. Thesestudies are mostly dependent on the sequence and structure details of the protein. The sequence details of the protein are abundantly available whereas the structure details of the protein are less abundant. It is better to study the structure of the protein than sequence to know the function of the protein because of the fact that if two proteins are similar in structure they are more likely to have same function. The structure details of proteins are available in the Brookhaven PDB format. This format consists of the experimentally determined coordinate details of each atom. The atoms other than carbon and hydrogen which are not the part of the protein, can be called as Heteroatoms (e.g. HEM). These heteroatom details in the PDB file provide information about the ligands and small molecules that bind to the protein, which play an important role in the delivering function to the protein. There are plenty of online servers and stand-alone tools that analyse PDB files and also finds the similar structures based on these records. There are also few online servers which analyse the HETATM records of a PDB file. But there is no standalone tool that can analyse the heteroatom records to find the proteins that have similar ligands in them. Having this as a central idea, we have designed a toolkit to analyse the heteroatom details of the query protein in finding the similar proteins from the based on the similarity in the heteroatom records of the PDB files. The tool has been designed using PerlTK modules of Perl and the Hetero atom details of PDB IDs are taken from Hiccup server, a server which provides the heteroatom details of all the PDB files.
Drosophila melanogaster is a fly, distributed worldwide with the exception of extremes of altitude or latitude. It is most commonly found in close association with human habitation, and is often found inside houses, especially in the fall where it is attracted by fruit and wine. D. melanogaster was suitable for experimental work and brought it to the attention of Thomas Hunt Morgan, an embryologist at Columbia University in New York who wished to make an experimental study.
Further study of quantum mechanics led us to some new comprehensions. The spin of electron is no longer spin of electron in quantum mechanics, but the effect of relativity. The Bohr orbital angular momentum is corresponded to what was to be said the spin of electron. Its direction in an orbit decides the signs of wave function ψ, i.e. ψ+, or ψ−. The dz2 orbital is deduced to be the only magnetic one in all types of orbits.
The paper highlights the glimpses on gender mainstreaming in Indian marine fisheries sector focusing attention on the gender equity and equality emphasized in the Indian context. Gender empowerment paradigm has been explored along with emphasizing the three pillars such as economic empowerment, well- being and decision making. Policy and programs for aquaculture development in India also have been given a vivid explanation followed by mariculture sector. The mariculture potential of India is vast as there is great scope for developing farming of shrimps, pearl oysters, mussels, crabs, lobsters, sea bass, groupers, mullets, milkfish, rabbit fish, sea cucumber, ornamental fishes, seaweeds etc. Although about 1.2 million ha is suitable for land based saline aquaculture in India, currently only 13 % is utilized. Important legislations in the Mariculture farming systems prevalent in India have been explored step by step with data on involvement of men and women in Marine Fisheries and Mariculture. All the mariculture technologies conspicuously being disseminated by CentalMarine Fisheries Research Institute with involvement of women and those possessing potential for women’s participation such as mussel farming, edible oyster farming, pearl oyster farming and pearl production, clam culture, lobster farming and fattening, crab farming / fattening, sea cucumber culture, marine finfish culture, ornamental fish culture, seaweed culture, open sea cage farming etc have been explained. The paper also highlights the gender issues and challenges in mariculture and marine fisheries sector in India and the future direction to proceed further. No nation can ignore fifty per cent of its population and bring in social change and economic prosperity. To ensure rapid economic development, removal of gender imbalances should be established as a priority. This would mobilize the remaining fifty percent of the country’s human resources and would result in the smooth movement of the economic wheel. Integrating gender perspective in aquaculture research and technology development is inevitable because the gender mainstreaming approach advances gender equality and equity in the society. Equity is a means and equality is a result. There is a genuine need for integrating gender perspective in development works or in aquaculture extension also because women are the important stakeholders of our development process and our Extension system hardly targets the women folk for technological empowerment.
The socio-cultural understanding of food and related taboos has been a concern of anthropology for long. The present study was conducted among Kinnauras of Himachal Pradesh (India) to understand their food taboos during menstruation, after child delivery and food restriction in case of death. The symbolism related to food in terms of ‘hot/cold' dichotomy was found in the present study. The concept of 'purity and pollution' and related taboos was found to be closely intertwined among the Kinnauras.
Many studies are demonstrating the therapeutic use through electric incentives in countless processes of tissue repair. Initially the skin harmed by burn becomes sterile. Later, in the first 48 hours, the wound formed in the burn is colonized by microorganisms of the macrobiotic normal of the skin that are substituted progressively for Gram-negatives and some fungi. It is also known that the infection is principal death cause in burned patients, therefore it is important to research which treatments reestablish the homeostasis necessary to this skin. The objective of the present study was to verify the antimicrobial effect of the microcurrent application (MC) in the tissue repair of burns of 2° degree. Twenty males Wistar mice were andrecipient in the number area, submitted to the burn by a metallic stem with constant temperature of 120°C and then separate in two groups with 10 animals each. The experimental group received daily application of MC (10μA/2 minutes) the control group didn’t already receive any treatment. The statistical tests indicated that there was difference significant in relation to the bacteriostatic effect of the treatment, presenting decrease of the number of present microorganisms, when agreement with MC and reducing like this, the infectious process in the place of the lesion. Therefore, the result indicated that treatment presented bacteriostatic effect, reducing amount the bacterial colonization and favoring the cicatrisation.
Cell phones emit radiofrequency energy (radio waves), a form of non-ionizing radiation. Tissues nearest to where the phone is held can absorb this energy. Radiofrequency energy is a form of electromagnetic radiation. The only known biological effect of radiofrequency energy is heating. Radiofrequency exposure from cell phone use does cause heating; however, it is not sufficient to measurably increase body temperature. A recent study showed that when people used a cell phone for 50 minutes, brain tissues on the same side of the head as the phone’s antenna metabolized more glucose than did tissues on the opposite side of the brain. Currently, cellular phones are classified as carcinogenic category 2b - potentially carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Glycerol is a by-product from biodiesel industry. Biodiesel production is increasing exponentially. So the crude glycerol generated has also been generated in a large quantity. This glycerin can be utilized in many applications viz. pharma, personal care, etc industry. Glycerin refinery price goes much higher such that it is not convenient for small scale biodiesel producers. Oxidation of glycerin yields various specialty products. And selective oxidation yields the compounds having particular functional groups. Platinum–bismuth bimetallic catalyst gives selective results for oxidation. In this selective reaction various percentage of glycerin is taken as initial reactant and their ratios to catalysts are studied across the parameters. These results give the yield in percentage conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone.
Of all the 65 bacterial biocontrol agents screened by dual culture technique, the isolate SAM-17 showed maximum inhibition (100%) and the antagonist SAMB-29 (41.33%) recorded least per cent inhibition from the bacteria pool. Among the Trichoderma biocontrol agents, the antagonist SAMF-42 found to be superior (83.88%) and further, the least inhibition was observed in the antagonist SAMF-57 (12.22%). The compatibility of potential biocontrol agent SAM-17with different fungicides revealed that SAMB-17 was highly compatible with thiophanate methyl (90.45%) and least compatible with hexaconzole (41.09%). The plant growth parameters like maximum plant height (20.55cm), maximum root length (10.12 cm), maximum shoot weight (10.50 g) and maximum root weight (1.59g) was recorded in the treatment T6, integrated with seed and potential BCA + seed treatment with fungicide in pot culture studies. Thus, these findings indicated that biological control using fungicidal tolerant potential antagonistic isolate SAMB-17 can be exploited in the frame work of integrated disease management to manage the collar rot of groundnut incited by Aspergillus niger.
In the present study, the efficiency of Polysorbate 20 (Tween 20) as additive on the removal of phenol catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase was done as an alternative to the conventional phenol removal processes. Tween 20 was found to increase the activity of horseradish peroxidase. Various studies were done by varying Tween 20 concentration, initial phenol concentration, pH and time.