Volume 4, Number 11, Pages 1-197, January - March 2016

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Towards multimodal systems a novel approach for biometric systems have implemented to address the accepting proof of identity. The unified experimental setting aims at evaluating security with fingerprint. A behavioral feature is able to satisfy adequacy, speed, and reliability constraints of authentication in real applications. This paper provides a secure document authentication by biometric technique and converts into machine-readable code to emphasis Person’s identity. By detecting the core point the minutiae points are extracted. The coordinates and orientation of minutiae are generated as matrix format and insert into QR generator. The converted QR code is embedded on the Document for verification. During verification, QR code is scanned and the extracted features from QR code and the person’s fingerprint are matched to attain identity (Ref: Sharmila J, Janani S. Secured Document Authentication Using Fingerprint as QR Code. Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 64-69); (Image: shutterstock_137894381).

PERSPECTIVE

Classification methodologies of retinal vessel segmentation

Dhanalaxmi K, Vidhya A

The retinal image analysis is the important methodology for early detection of eye and systematic diseases. The timely diagnosis and analysis of diseases can prevent lot of people from severe visual loss. In the retina blood vessel and optic disk segmentation is the fundamental to identify and notice abnormal variations some of them are bright lesions (exudates and cotton wool spots) and red lesions (hemorrhages and micro aneurysms). By using fundus photographs the blood vessels are segmented into thick and predominant vessel pixels and fine vessel pixels. In the preprocessing stage vessel enhancement as well as vessel normalization will be done by adaptive histogram equalization. In the classification stage major vessels and fine vessels get extracted by using feature sets. Two binary images are attained by the techniques high pass filter and morphological reconstruction. The regions common to both the binary images are extracted as major vessels. Depending on the resolution of fundus images in the post processing stage, segmented vessels are further enhanced to ensure higher vessel segmentation accuracy.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 1-6

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SURVEY

Survey on Phishing and Anti-Phishing Approaches

Vaira Santhiya P, Nirmala G

In computer security field, Phishing is a criminal deceptive process attempt to stealing individual information such as username, password, and credit card details for the purpose committing financial fraud. Phishing is normally passed out using email or a direct message, even though phone contacts have been used. Attempts to deal with the rising number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, and technical actions. Phishing has a negative impact on the economy through financial losses experienced by businesses and customer. The injure caused by phishing attacks vary from denial of access to e-mail to extensive financial loss. Tools and techniques are used to prevent phishing. Anti-phishing plays a great role in protecting user from phishing attacks. This paper explains about the types of phishing and anti-phishing attacks, phishing and anti-phishing techniques, phishing tools and anti-phishing framework to prevent users from Phisher, and also discussed about its pros and cons.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 7-15

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SURVEY

Game theory in secure energy efficient wireless sensor networks: a survey

Vijay R, Srinivasan G

Smart world facilitates automatic control of devices in the real world. Tiny devices make a great impact on automation trend. Such tiny devices called sensors have limited resource constraints. Wireless Sensor Networks allow communication of sensors in a distributed manner. Data security should be maintained because sensors are used in many applications such as health care, military, etc., Energy consumed secure routing is the major security issue in sensor networks. There are many routing protocols coined to solve these issues. But they are not sufficient to provide data protection in low energy. Game theory is used to derive trust between nodes and establish a network based on it. It is the energy efficient method for secure routing in sensor networks. This paper surveys about security attacks, routing protocols and use of game theory in sensor networks.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 16-25

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SURVEY

Security challenges in internet of things: a survey

Niranjana Devi K, Muthu Selvi R

Small changes make a big impact. Nowadays users can transfer data without interaction between human and machine. Data can be transferred between the objects. The required computation is done with the help of the novel technology called Internet of Things (IoT). Developers can create several applications based on their innovative thinking. There are a lot of different scopes available on it. Many research problems are still pending. Security and privacy are the hot researching area of it because many applications like military application, health care monitoring, natural disaster identification, etc., require data confidentiality and integrity. This paper surveys about security challenges and ongoing researches in IoT. The intention of this paper is to trigger off researchers to enlarge IoT technology.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 26-35

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ANALYSIS

Micro system with MEMS sensor for detecting sleep Apnea

Senthil Kumar PK, Nithya VK, Vimala Juliet A

Current solutions for Sleep Apnea need the patient to undergo over night sleep studies in a sleep laboratory lasting for at least eight hours. This is very costly and sometimes inconvenient for the patients. The use of Micro sensors reduces the cost as well as the size of the entire system for sleep Apnea detection considerably. With the help of a powerful Apnea screening algorithm and the proposed MEMS sensor sleep Apnea can be effectively scored even in home environment. The respiratory rhythm of the patient can be recorded using the proposed sensor and can be conditioned using signal conditioning IC’s in association with an effective Apnea screening algorithm.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 36-41

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ANALYSIS

DDMAS- A Dynamic Defense DDOS Attack Mitigation Architecture in SDN and Cloud

Ezhilarasi S

The main purpose of the cloud is outsourcing. It is responsible for managing applications and data at runtime. Cloud computing has become a trend of enterprise IT services. Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) have remained as one o the most destructive attacks in the Internet for over two decades. DDOS attackers explore vulnerabilities of cloud system and compromise virtual machine to deploy large scale DDOS. Vulnerability is the weakness which allows attacker to reduce the system access and has capacity to exploit. DDOS is that the attackers send a number of requests to the system and compromise the systems called Zombies, they slow down the performance by preventing from getting service. Cloud system has service models such as Iaas, Paas, Saas and our model deals with Iaas which is computing infrastructure of virtual machines like Amazon, Windows Azure, Rackspace etc. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is gaining popularity in enterprise networks for flexibility in network management service and reduced operational cost. Cloud computing facilitates the management of computation and storage resources The arrival of the era when cloud computing and SDN go hand-in-hand in providing enterprise IT services. DDoS attack attempt to make a service unavailable to its intended users by draining the system or network resource. I propose a dynamic defense DDoS attack mitigation architecture in SDN and cloud (DDMAS) that integrates a highly programmable network monitoring to enable attack detection and a flexible control structure to allow fast and specific attack reaction. It is effective and efficient for security problems.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 42-48

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ANALYSIS

Security of data in semi trusted third party for cloud environments

Anitha R, Suganya V

Cloud computing is used for securing stored data and access data anywhere, at every time in the world. In cloud, Outsourcing data to third party organizations control leads to serious security concerns. Data leakage can arise due to attacks caused by unauthorized users. However, security is a huge concern for cloud users. In this paper a security for cloud outsourced data storage and a proper key management system with multiple key manager using key sharing technique and also the policy file encryption technique for security purpose has proposed. The proposed scheme focuses on the security for outsourced data, key management and access control in the cloud.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 49-54

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ANALYSIS

Student Attendance System Using RFID Technology

Sethupathi O, Muthuselvi R

Nowadays RFID (Radio frequency identification) is a technology used to identify the objects on the behalf of the tags as a part of identification resource. RFID used for different purposes in many organizations including the offices and colleges/universities is used for the attendance marking purposes. The academic office is still lack of one effectual methodology to collect Accurate student’s actual attendance.This paper introduces the RFID based students attendance system. The automation of the attendance will collect through the passive tag and active RFID readers. The system will design in a way that each student is given an RFID passive tag which is embedded within every Student’s ID card. When Student walks in/walks out the campus the RFID Card will be read by the reader mounted at the gates (UHF reader, manual punch not required). The value sensed will be sent to a computer through the RS 232 interface. This computer will be having the database which consists of all the student register numbers and their respective tag values. The web application shows all details for students entrance, exit and duration time. The web application will give a daily absentees report then it will be sent to concern department via E-mail.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 55-63

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ANALYSIS

Secured Document Authentication Using Fingerprint as QR Code

Sharmila J, Janani S

Towards multimodal systems a novel approach for biometric systems have implemented to address the accepting proof of identity. The unified experimental setting aims at evaluating security with fingerprint. A behavioral feature is able to satisfy adequacy, speed, and reliability constraints of authentication in real applications. This paper provides a secure document authentication by biometric technique and converts into machinereadable code to emphasis Person’s identity. By detecting the core point the minutiae points are extracted. The coordinates and orientation of minutiae are generated as matrix format and insert into QR generator. The converted QR code is embedded on the Document for verification. During verification, QR code is scanned and the extracted features from QR code and the person’s fingerprint are matched to attain identity.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 64-69

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ANALYSIS

Cognitive emotion recognition for elder care in homes

Rajashree T, Ramya R

The elderly cognitive function decreased significantly due to the change in social roles and physical ability, which seriously affects the quality of their life and mental state. So we are proposing a system to understand emotions. The system is designed to determine the facial landmarks and to apply feature extraction methods for emotion recognition. For an input image, preprocessing is done to remove noise in the facial images, followed by face detection using Viola Jones technique. The different regions of interest are eye and nose. To reduce the computational complexity as well as the false detection rate, the coarse region of interest is extracted based on the position of facial landmarks. The active patches are positioned below the eyes, in between the eyebrows, around the nose and mouth corners. Based on the localization of left and right eye, the 19 active facial patches are detected. Feature extraction is done by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) algorithm. In Local Binary Pattern algorithm, the image is divided into equal blocks, pattern is extracted and the histogram is drawn for each block. Finally all the histograms are concatenated for processing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique which is used to reduce the features and then they are classified by Multi-class SVM classification algorithm. Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) dataset is used to show the performance of the system.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 70-78

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ANALYSIS

Shunt Active Power Filter Design with LCL Filter

Hemakesavulu O, Santhi Durganjali C

Linear/non linear loads produce reactive power and harmonics. To eliminate harmonics and to compensate reactive power produced by linear/nonlinear loads the SAPF is a useful device. The SAPF (shunt active power filter) with LCL filter is examined and a decorative pattern is introduced using single phase equivalent circuit model. The capability of SAPF is used to determine the total inductance. LCL filter has an adverse effect on magnitude and phase of compensation current. Moreover, damping ratio, resonant frequency and attenuation degree of switching ripples are the most crucial factors to design parameters of LCL filters. LCL filter deteriorates the compensation effect of SAPF. To address this problem, synchronous rotating transformation is proposed as a correction method for compensation of output current. This seminar analyses the characteristics of LCL filter in shunt active power filter (SAPF) and provides an accurate formula to determine the resonant frequency of system.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 79-87

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ANALYSIS

Hardware Implementation of Fuzzy Controlled Isolated Zeta Converter fed BLDC Motor Drive

Sreelakshmi K, Caroline Ann Sam

A fuzzy controller based isolated zeta converter fed BLDC motor drive is proposed here. The non-linear load like rectifier with capacitor, adjustable speed drives etc add current spike and distorts the supply current. Due to this injected harmonics the quality of power degrades. Active power factor correctors are suitable for the harmonics caused due to the non-linear loads. Isolated Zeta Converter is a power factor corrector which can reduce harmonics, speed control and also provides isolation. The overall cost of this system is less due to the reduced number of sensors. The high switching frequency of the converter helps to reduce the component size. Fuzzy Logic Controller is used as it is suitable for parameter variation and simple control. So this system is simple, cost effective, provides better power factor and speed control.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 88-93

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ANALYSIS

Minimization of Fuel Cost in Generating Power System by using an Efficient Gravitational Search Algorithm

Jeevitha R, Rizwana J, Aravind R

This paper presents the solution for Economic Dispatch Problem (EDP) in order to reduce fuel cost of the generators by using an efficient optimization technique called Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA). The main objective of this paper is to minimize the total fuel cost of all the generators connected to the considered power system. Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) is a novel heuristic search algorithm and it is inspired from the law of gravity and the law of motion which is applied to variables and their performance is based upon the masses. The GSA algorithm is applied to the system and compared with other optimization techniques like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to show the effectiveness of the GSA algorithm.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 94-99

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ANALYSIS

Control real and reactive power flow with UPFC connected to single and double transmission line

Mageshwari M, Ramesh S, Praveena P

In transmission system, the power quality issues occur due to variation in the load parameter. In order to maintain the voltage profile and power factor at the desired level some of the power quality problems such as voltage sag and swell, voltage flicker and harmonic distortion are generally considered. Nowadays FACTS controllers are used to rectify the power quality problems. The most effective and recently developed FACTS device is Unified power flow controllers (UPFC).The UPFC is one of the modern power electronic device, that can be used to control both real and reactive power in transmission line. The main objective of this thesis is to maintain the voltage profile and power factor at desired level. In this proposed work, single and double transmission lines are considered with UPFC to improve the real and reactive power flow and also to evaluate the performance of transmission lines. The resultant simulation model is tested for 22kV and 33kV transmission line systems with and without UPFC model in MATLAB SIMULINK. After which it is effectively compared with parameters such as voltage, current, power factor, real and reactive power flow.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 100-108

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ANALYSIS

Comparative studies on switched capacitor based single phase multilevel inverter fed from PV systems for isolated applications


Yasmin Taj S, Yamuna M, Revathi V, Habeebullah Sait H

This paper presents comparative studies on different levels of single phase inverter for standalone photo voltaic systems with simple pulse width modulation scheme. The pulse width modulation scheme utilizes one triangular carrier signal and multi sinusoidal reference signal for controlling the switches of the inverter. The performance of the five and seven level inverter has been verified through MATLAB simulation results. The simulation results prove that, the seven level inverter provides more fundamental rms output voltage and less total harmonic distortion in the inverter output voltage without using passive filter than conventional two level inverter.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 109-117

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ANALYSIS

Improvement of power quality with DVR controller using wind energy conversion system in a distributed system


Karpagam N, Aukalya P

This paper proposes dqo based controller for DVR to improve the power quality. In addition to meet out the load demand, a renewable energy resources of wind energy conversion is included in the system along with DVR.This proposed technique is analyzed for different distribution condition and it is proved that it maintains the power quality under disturbance condition. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method by using the PSIM simulation.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 118-126

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ANALYSIS

Cost analysis of energy efficient solar water pumping system

Karpagam N, Ganga devi TS

Increase in power demand leads to the distributed generation with renewable energy resources. Among different types of renewable energies, solar energy can be used for the production of adequate amount of power. In this work solar power panel simulation based on five parameter model with mono crystalline and poly crystalline panels is proposed for different solar radiation intensity and cell temperature. In addition photovoltaic water pumping system with the proposed model is analyzed towards the cost analysis. The performance analyses have been done with PV syst software.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 127-134

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ANALYSIS

Application of UPQC with renewable energy resources for power quality improvement in distributed generation


Karpagam N, Dhanalakshmi S, Ramyadevi M

This paper proposes Proportional Integral (PI) Controller based UPQC along with dq0 transformation for Power Quality Improvement in a distribution system. Discrete PWM pulse generator with Phase Locked Loop (PLL) was used as a control strategy in this work. Power quality disturbances were enhanced by UPQC with PI controller was proposed. The performance of UPQC for severe disturbances was observed using PI controller and it is proved that with the implementation of UPQC controller the power quality has been improved under overloaded and faulty conditions. Renewable energy (solar energy) is added along with UPQC for additional load compensation in distributed generation. Simulations are carried out in the MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 135-143

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RESEARCH

Four quadrant operation of BLDC motor drive using a non inverting buck boost converter

Annie Bincy CA, Salitha K

Brushless DC motors are widely used in many applications such as traction, appliances, instrumentation and aerospace. Thus operation of BLDC motor in all four quadrants becomes very essential. Motor is operated in all quadrants of torque-speed plane without any power loss and energy is conserved during the generation period. Using a two switch non- inverting buck-boost converter, operating either in buck mode or boost mode by controlling only one switch at a time, all the quadrants of operation is achieved. MATLAB/SIMULINK was used for simulation and experimental setup was achieved successfully with energy storage.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 144-152

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RESEARCH

Switched inductor z-source based cascaded multilevel matrix converter with level doubling network

Vasanthprakash M, Mahendran R

Multilevel Inverter is one of the attractive topology for dc to ac conversion. Multilevel Inverter synthesizes the desired voltage wave shape from some levels of DC voltages. But the main drawback of Multilevel Inverter is, its output voltage amplitude and level is limited to DC sources voltage summation. To overcome this limitation, a Switched Inductor Z-source based cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Matrix Converter with Self-Balancing Level Doubling Network has been proposed in this project. In this proposed topology output voltage amplitude can be boosted by Switched Inductor Z-Source Network and the output level is doubled by Self-Balancing Level Doubling Network. The Switched Inductor Z-Source network employs between an DC sources and Multilevel Matrix Converter circuitry to achieve boost operation. The Level Doubling network takes the form of a half-bridge inverter to nearly double the number of output voltage levels. The level doubling network has the ability of self-balancing during positive voltage polarity and negative voltage polarity, and it do not consume any power. The topology is implemented by connecting only a threearm H-bridge with the entire Single-phase inverter to double the number of levels. Thus, it extensively improves the power quality, reduces the number of switches, and decrease the price and volume of the power filter. Operation of the circuit is verified by MATLAB/SIMULINK (R2012a).

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 153-161

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RESEARCH

Monitoring of Toxic Gases in Gold Mining

Vithiya R, Elakkiya N, Martin L

The wearable computing and treatment system are used to protect the construction workers from toxic gases such as carbon-mono oxide (CO) and methane (CH4) poisoning. These poisoning are significant problem for construction workers employed in gold mining and gold cyanidation. A pulse oximetry sensor has been integrated into a typical prototype to allow continuous and non-invasive monitoring of workers blood gas saturation levels. These sensor systems monitor the condition of the workers automatically by sensing CO and CH4 level of the environment around the workplace and as well as individual heart beat of the worker. The sensor output is signal conditioned and it is digitized by using an analog to digital converter. The Microcontroller controls the operation of the ADC and the digital output of the ADC is transferred to the input port of the microcontroller. Then the transmitter section transmits that digital output to the receiver section. When the CO content of the environment goes above a threshold level the microcontroller automatically turns ON the Buzzer to indicate the critical condition. In the receiver section will be having GSM Modem to send the condition that presents in the workplace to the supervisor.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 162-167

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RESEARCH

Cascade H-bridge converter based STATCOM for reactive power compensation

Govindaraj V, Palpandian P, Kesavan E, Agalya A, Manoharan S

This paper deals with the design and implementation of a multilevel voltage source converter based static compensator (STATCOM) in MATLAB Simulink. The main objective of this paper is to maintain the voltage stability by compensating the reactive power in the power system. Cascade Multilevel Converter based STATCOM is used for reactive power control. A cascaded multilevel converter is a three phase VSC which comprises of three single phases and each phase consists of H-bridges connected in series. Each single phase H-bridge converter has two arms consisting of two pairs of GTO and diode connected in anti-parallel. Each H-bridge has its own capacitor, acting as a voltage source. This work proposes the enhancement of power transfer capability and maintaining unity power factor. Relative Harmonic analysis is also discussed in this paper based on the total harmonic distortion (THD) calculations. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control scheme MATLAB/SIMULINK tool is used.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 168-174

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RESEARCH

Automated Irrigation System w i t h Pesticide monitor using a Wireless Sensor Network and GSM module

Gokila R, Kanagavalli S, Sathya G

An automated irrigation system is used to optimize water use for agricultural crops. The system has a distributed wireless network of soilmoisture and temperature sensors placed in the root zone of the plants. In addition, a gateway unit handles sensor information, triggers actuators, and transmits data to mobile phone through GSM. The pesticide monitor unit uses a load cell sensor to measure quantity of the pesticide for the crop. An algorithm was developed with threshold values of temperature, soil moisture and load cell values which is programmed into a microcontroller-based gateway to control water quantity and pesticide. Analysis has been done to understand the crop production on a particular land and the requirement of water and pesticide for a particular crop is studied and the values are programmed into a microcontroller. Because of its energy autonomy and low cost, the system has the potential to be useful in water limited geographically isolated areas.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 175-180

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REVIEW

A survey and taxonomy for personalizing trust enhanced recommender system using computational trust

Senthilkumar KT, Ponnusamy R

Trust is a promising research topic for several Web applications, including e-commerce, P2P networks, multi-agent systems, recommendation systems, social networks and service-oriented computing. Recommender systems are an effective solution to the information overload problem, especially in the online world where we are constantly faced with tremendously many choices. Trust information makes recommender system to be promising to overcome its major challenges (cold start, data sparsity, and attacks) as well as improving the accuracy of the recommendations. The aim of this paper is to study the current approaches of trust enhanced recommender systems with computational trust based models and to identify possible gaps for providing insights and directions for future researches. At start there is an introduction of traditional recommendation approaches along with their limitations. Then there is taxonomy of computational trust definitions and properties, metrics and trust processing phases. It follows a survey of current trust enhanced approaches with classification of their techniques. Finally the study identifies the gaps in the current literature of trust enhanced based models and proposes areas for future research.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 181-189

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REVIEW

Single phase grid connected photo voltaic power system with active power filter

Vijayasanthi S, Banumathi R

This paper presents the Photovoltaic Active Power Filter (PV-APF) combination system and built a dynamic grid-connected PV unit. To meet a unity power factor as well as pure sinusoidal currents to the non-linear loads from the unity supply this system has been proposed. APF controller is based on instantaneous power theory is proposed to replace the conventional controller of PV unit, in three phase three wire system. The MATLAB/Sim power Systems tool has proved that the combined system can simultaneously inject maximum power from a PV unit and compensate the harmonic current drawn by non-linear loads.

Discovery Engineering, 2016, 4(11), 190-197

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