Volume 4, Number 9 - 12, July - December, 2013

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We investigated the impact of two selected pesticides, imidacloprid a neonicotinoid and acephate an organophosphate on soil enzyme activities, such as protease and invertase in two soils (laterite and vertisol) collected from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated fields of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh, India, by conducting experiments in laboratory at different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, 100ppm) which are equivalent to field application rates (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha-1 ), to check the soil health and fertility in terms of soil indicators. In our reporting we observed, protease and invertase activities were more pronounced at 2.5 kg ha-1 in both soils after 10 days of incubation. Furthermore increase in pesticide concentration decreased the enzyme activity. However the stimulatory effect was observed up to 20 days of incubation in both soils. Whereas, the decline phase started after 20 to 40 days of incubation. Finally, higher concentrations of 5.0 to 10.0 kg ha-1 were toxic or innocuous to protease and invertase activities in both soils. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the protease and invertase were not affected, by the insecticides applied at recommended levels in agricultural systems (Ref: Jaffer Mohiddin G, Srinivasulu M, Madakka M, Anuradha B, Meghana D, Rangaswamy V. Impact of selected insecticides on protease and invertase activities in groundnut (arachis hypogaea L.) soils. Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 24-31).

BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE MONTH

Biological Computer constructed by Israeli scientists through biomolecules

Brithvi V

Israeli scientists have built a biological computer using only biomolecules like enzymes and DNA. The researchers have created a molecular transducer – an advanced computing machine, built entirely of biomolecules that can manipulate genetic codes. It is capable of solving equations and creating supercomputers out of the very stuff from which, we ourselves, are made

Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 4(9), 3

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RESEARCH

In vitro multiple shoot regeneration from cotyledonary nodes, shoot tips and nodal segments of ridge gourd

Roly ZY, Mahmudul M, Haque ME, Islam MA, Sikdar B

The present investigation was accomplished with a view to set up a suitable protocol for in vitro regeneration of ridge gourd using cotyledonary nodes from in vitro grown seedling, shoot tips and nodal segments from field grown mature plants. Surface sterilization of explants was conducted with 0.1% HgCl2 for 5 minute in seeds and 0.05% HgCl2 for 2.30 minute in shoot tips and nodal segments for successful contamination free culture. For direct shoot multiplication from nodal segment and shoot tips, effective result was found on MS containing 1.5 mg/l BAP + 0.3 mg/l GA3 and 1 mg/l BAP + 0.3 mg/l GA3 was suitable for cotyledonary node. Average number of shoot per culture was 5.20 for nodal segments, 3.80 for shoot tips, and in case of cotyledonary nodes that was 4.40. Highest result of callus induction was found in nodal segments using 2 mg/l BAP + 0.4 mg/l NAA. In vitro regenerated shoots were cultured on ½ of strength MS containing different concentrations of IBA and NAA for successfully root induction and the effective result was found using 1 mg/l IBA. Rooted plantlets were well established on the soil and eighty percents of them were survived.

Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 4(9), 4-8

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BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE MONTH

Increase agriculture yields in extreme climate conditions

Brithvi V

Agriculture and fisheries are highly dependent on specific climate conditions. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Agriculture is highly sensitive to climate variability and weather extremes such as droughts, Floods and severe storms. Climate change induced by increasing greenhouse gases is likely to affect crops differently from region to region

Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 4(10), 11

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RESEARCH

Fungicidal compounds from a marine Ascidian-associated fungus Trichoderma harzianum

Prabha Devi, Ciavatta ML, Wahidullah S, Vuppala S, DSouza L

A marine Ascidian-associated fungus, Trichoderma harzianum, (NIO/BCC2000-51) was assessed for its in vitro antagonistic activity against ten fungal phytopathogens and three food-infesting fungi.

Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 4(10), 12-17

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RESEARCH

Molecular characterization of biocontrol agents using RAPD and 16s rRNA analysis against Aspergillus Niger causing collar rot of groundnut


Radhaiah A, Nagalakshmi Devamma M

Polymorphism among the antagonistic biocontrol against Aspergillus niger was studied using molecular techniques like RAPD-PCR and 16S rRNA analysis. The RAPD banding pattern reflected the genetic diversity among the antagonists by formation of two clusters. A total of 154 reproducible and scorable polymorphic bands ranging approximately as low as 600 bp to as high as 3500 bp were generated with five RAPD primers. The potential antagonists SAMB-17 and SAMB-2 amplified with OPA-20 primer yielded unique bands of 2500bp can be used to develop Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers. 16S region of rRNA amplification with genus specific 63F and 1387R universal primers produced approximately 1300bp in the fungicide tolerant potential bacterial antagonist.

Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 4(10), 18-21

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RESEARCH

Impact of selected insecticides on protease and invertase activities in groundnut (arachis hypogaea L.) soils

Jaffer Mohiddin G, Srinivasulu M, Madakka M, Anuradha B, Meghana D, Rangaswamy V

We investigated the impact of two selected pesticides, imidacloprid a neonicotinoid and acephate an organophosphate on soil enzyme activities, such as protease and invertase in two soils (laterite and vertisol) collected from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated fields of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh, India, by conducting experiments in laboratory at different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, 100ppm) which are equivalent to field application rates (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha-1), to check the soil health and fertility in terms of soil indicators. In our reporting we observed, protease and invertase activities were more pronounced at 2.5 kg ha-1 in both soils after 10 days of incubation.

Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 4(11), 24-31

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RESEARCH

Micropropagation studies in Lavandula aungustifolia

Soni DR, Sodhi G Kaur, Sayyad FG

Lavandula angustifolia (Family Labiates) is a medicinal herb mainly found in Mediterranean area. It is a well known herb in ayurvedic system of medicines and has traditionally been used to treat disorder of liver, fever and several conditions including infertility infection, anxiety. It is also used in aromatherapy as antidepressants

Discovery Biotechnology, 2013, 4(12), 34-37

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