BIOTECHNOLOGY – AN OVERVIEW
Biotechnology is a relatively new area and will require skillful control of its development. It is the application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing industries. Biotechnology is the manipulation of living organisms or their components to produce useful commercial products. It is the gene engineering technology that revolutionized the biological sciences. It introduced a whole new approach to drug development that did not easily integrate into the chemically-focused approach most of the established pharmaceutical companies were using. Biotechnology used for drug development can also improve agricultural and food products. The field of biotechnology continues to accelerate with new discoveries leading to new applications. Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques and engineered organisms to make products or modify plants and animals to carry desired traits. It refers to the use of the biological sciences (such as gene manipulation), often in combination with other sciences (such as materials sciences, nanotechnology, and computer software), to discover, evaluate and develop products for bioindustry. The literature of biotechnology is enormous and quickly growing. Recombinant DNA techniques known as genetic engineering offer unlimited opportunities for bringing about new combinations of genes which at the moment do not exist under natural conditions. Genetic engineering has been defined as the formation of new combinations of heritable material by the insertion of nucleic acid molecules, produced by whatever mean outside the cell, into any virus, bacterial plasmid or other vector system so as to allow their incorporation into a host organism in which they do not naturally occur but in which they are capable of continued propagation.
DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) are nonviral gene transfer vectors with excellent in vivo potential. Nonviral vectors for airway gene transfer have been the subject of intense investigation due to their lack of toxicity and immunogenicity.
In our literature survey mostly covered all chromatographic and other analytical methods. The aim of this review was to compare the different analytical methods, procedures and the accuracy of results. The main focus was given to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); because of drugs is mostly analysis in HPLC.
Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, is a disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure (enamel, dentin, and cementum).These tissues progressively break down, producing dental caries (cavities, holes in the teeth). Two groups of bacteria are responsible for initiating caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection, and, in severe cases, death.
Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells (these are called pluripotent cells), but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
Coleus Aromaticus is known for its medicinal value. The present investigation is anti microbial activity and the Mycorrhizal status of Coleus aromaticus in various sites of Madurai district.
The Protease is a hydrolytic enzyme which is shares 60% of total worldwide sale of industrial enzymes. Protease has a long history of application in food, detergent and leather industries and is an important tool in studying the structure of protein and peptides.