Volume 3, Number 10, January - June 2015

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About the Cover

The basic aim of this article is to shed light on the contemporary status of groundwater in Punjab. A Spatio-Temporal study has been made to understand the mosaic of groundwater usage. For analyzing the ground water status; secondary data is used to prepare maps and graphs. Choropleth mapping method is used for drawing maps to show change in maximum ground water depth that has taken place from 2002 to 2012. Groundwater is the most significant source for water supply in the state. Most of the domestic, agricultural and industrial water requirement is met with ground water. The south-western districts of the state are served by surface water and rest of the region receives water supplies from tube wells which tap shallow and deeper aquifer system. It has been identified that ground water resources are under great pressure and practice of over mining is on rise pointing towards more grave conditions that may occur in the coming times. The government and the farmers are fully conscious about the pathetic condition of aquifers in the state and government has taken several remedial measures to ensure sustainability in ground water usage (Ref: Shekhar Kumar. Status of Ground Water in Punjab – A Temporal Analysis. Discovery Agriculture, 2015, 3(10), 1-5), (Image: http://sikhsiyasat.net/).

ANALYSIS

Status of Ground Water in Punjab – A Temporal Analysis

Shekhar Kumar

The basic aim of this article is to shed light on the contemporary status of groundwater in Punjab. A Spatio-Temporal study has been made to understand the mosaic of groundwater usage. For analyzing the ground water status; secondary data is used to prepare maps and graphs. Choropleth mapping method is used for drawing maps to show change in maximum ground water depth that has taken place from 2002 to 2012. Groundwater is the most significant source for water supply in the state. Most of the domestic, agricultural and industrial water requirement is met with ground water. The south-western districts of the state are served by surface water and rest of the region receives water supplies from tube wells which tap shallow and deeper aquifer system. It has been identified that ground water resources are under great pressure and practice of over mining is on rise pointing towards more grave conditions that may occur in the coming times. The government and the farmers are fully conscious about the pathetic condition of aquifers in the state and government has taken several remedial measures to ensure sustainability in ground water usage.

Discovery Agriculture, 2015, 3(10), 1-5

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RESEARCH

Bare-root-dip treatment of tomato seedlings with neem and Bacillus thuringiensis for the management of Meloidogyne incognita


Harjinder Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Praveen Rishi

Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is one of the major limiting factors affecting plant growth and yield. Currently, synthetic pesticides are principle means used to control the nematodes but organic amendments and biocontrol agents may provide a safer alternatives. A study was conducted to evaluate the nematicidal potential of neem and Bacillus thuringiensis in controlling M. incognita. 5% neem leaf extract @ 10ml/seedling, 10% neem seed extract @ 10ml/seedling, 1.1X 109 CFU/ml Bt formulations alone @ 10ml/seedling and neem+Bt in combination in the ratio1:1 and 2.5% carbofuradan 3-G @ 10ml/seedling to control M. incognita infesting tomato plants. Bare-root-dip treatment with NSE was effective and caused 97.3%, and 120.3% significant increase (p<0.05) in total plant length and total plant weight respectively as compared to the inoculated control. The present study indicated that carbofuradan 3-G and WCS+NSE used as bare-root-dip treatment caused significant reduction in number of galls/root system by 75.5% and 42.1% as compared to the inoculated control. The bareroot- dip treatment with carbofuradan 3-G, WCS+NLE, CPR+NLE and CPR were effective and caused reduction in number of egg masses/gall by 70%, 49%, 48%, 41% respectively as compared to the inoculated control. The efficacy of carbofuradan 3-G, WCS+NLE, CPR, WCS+NSE as bareroot- dip treatment in reducing number of J2/1g root i.e. 86.8%, 68.9%, 68.4% and 67.3% respectively as compared to the inoculated control. Bare-root-dip treatment with WCS+NSE was effective and caused 63.6% reduction in number of males/250g soil as compared to the inoculated control.

Discovery Agriculture, 2015, 3(10), 6-17

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