Butterfly Fauna of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh
First report of some Trichodinid Ciliophorans (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) parasitizing cultured Oranda Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus L.) in India
Modeling the effects of temperature on population parameters of Chrotogonus homalodemus (Blanchard, 1836) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)
The terms “butterfly” are often thought of as the natural groups that make up the order Lepidoptera but butterflies are more closely related to the larger moths than either group is to the more primitive families of moths. It is important that one of the indicator species groups represents the insects. Insects are by far the most species-rich group of animals, representing over 50% of terrestrial biodiversity. The tremendous butterfly diversity of is strongly influenced by the many ecological regions that stretch beyond her borders. They are valuable pollinators when they move from plant to plant, gathering nectar and are the one of the important food chain components of the birds, reptiles, spiders and predatory insects. They are also good indicators of environmental quality as they are sensitive to changes in the environment. The present study was performed to assess the distribution and status of butterflies in Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary of India from March 2015 to August 2015. Field data was collected by conducting random surveys by all out search method, when butterflies are most active, i.e. in the morning 09:00 am to 11:00 am and evening 15:30 pm to 17:30 pm. Butterflies were identified in the field with the help of field guides Kehimkar Issac (2008); Kunte (2000). Specimen collection was strictly avoided. The study revealed that butterflies distributed throughout the Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary are influenced by food accessibility and habitat. In the present survey, 42 species of 31 genera of butterflies were recorded from the Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary. Out of 42 family Papilionidae has 6 species, Pieridae has 11 species, Lycaenidae has 4 species and Nymphalidae has 21 species of butterflies. Identification is one key to understanding the biology of a species, it might then be possible to develop conservation and management strategies to ensure the future of the butterflies.
Ornamental fish culture considered as one of the most important means of home entertainment, because of its diversity and beauty of picturesque colors. Trichodiniasis of fishes causing harm and economic losses in this fish industry. There are many records of trichodinids ectoparasites infesting fish have been found throughout the World, but no such study has been conducted on this parasitic group infesting ornamental fish Carassius auratus auratus L. in India. During the survey, four already known trichodinid species, namely, Trichodina chittogongensis, Trichodina pseudominta, Trichodina kaptaiensis and Trichodina jialgensis have been identified to infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time in India. These parasites have not been reported earlier from the Oranda Gold Fish in India. The present paper deals with the taxonomy, systematic and prevalence of the trichodinid ciliophoran species based on the wet silver nitrate impregnation technique and comparisons with closely related species.
During a survey from November 2014 to October 2015, 50 fingerlings of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were collected from the village Fagan Majra, District Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, out of which gills of 20 fishes were found to be infected with a new myxozoan parasite belonging to the genus Myxobolus viz. M. markiwi n. sp. The total prevalence of infection rate was recorded as 40%. The length and age of the fish host was 3.8cm and 1-2 months respectively. The plasmodia were 0.2mm in diameter were seen as creamish pustules on the gills. The myxospores were oval in shape with a prominent knob at an anterior end and measured 6.54x5.35μm. Polar capsules were equal, pyriform, measure 1.87x0.86μm with narrower anterior end attached to the knob and rounded posterior end. The gill plasmodial index (GPI) was recorded to be 1 indicated light infection. Polar filament coils 4-5 in number, arranged obliquely to the polar capsule axis. Intercapsular process (ICP) absent. Sporoplasm agranular, homogenous, with two nuclei, 0.2-0.3μm in diameter. Iodinophilous vacuole absent.
Temperature is the most important key factor affecting insect's life. Eggs of Chrotogonus homalodemus (Blanchard, 1836) were considered as the sensitive stage to temperature. The 2nd and 4th instars were observed to possess the highest mortality rate. Adults had the longest life span up to 130 days and reached sexual maturity within 9-15 days. Fecundity of females reached 96.86 ± 2.72 eggs. The value of net reproductive rate was 9.71 ± 1.18. Development of the insect from egg to egg required 2464 day degrees. The grasshopper might have three generations per year.