Garra tamangi, a new species of labeonine cyprinid fish is described from the Dikrong River, Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Garra tamangi is distinguished from all its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra River drainage in having roughly a triangular proboscis, trilobed with two small lobes that are more or less anteriorly free and a large median lobe anteroventrally tuberculated, moderately protruding forming a short horizontal notch between it and inferior side of the snout. Other distinguishing combinations of characters are given against its respective congeners in the discussion section.
People have attributed cultural significance to birds of prey for millennia. Despite this, it is likely that predatory birds have been victimized at least since people began rearing livestock and managing game. When people kill birds of prey, they cannot always breed fast enough to make up the losses and populations can decline rapidly. The declining raptors population from last few decades has attracted many biologists to find out the exact reason of sudden decline of their population. There is no single reason which can be claimed as the foremost reason for their decline. Loss of habitat, deforestation, urbanization and use of medicine (diclofenec in case of vulture) has been claimed by most of the ecologists as the major cause but actually there are other local reasons which have inflicted the raptors population in their respective areas. The most alarming example is the Bundelkhand region which constitutes some of the districts of both Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, within the boundaries of India. The present study was performed to assess the distribution and status of raptors in Bundelkhand region of India from January 2013 to June 2015. Survey is being carried out on foot or vehicle according to the area. Observations are being carried out using ‘encounter transect’ and ‘roost count’ method with the aid of 10x50 binoculars and data is supported with photography using Canon EOS 70 D SLR camera. The study revealed that raptors distributed throughout the bundelkhand region are influenced by food availability and habitat. In the present investigation, 42 species of the Raptors were recorded from the Bundelkhand region of India. Out of 42 family Accipitridae has 31 species, Tytonidae has 2 species and Strigidae has 9 species of raptors. According to IUCN status 27 species were Least Concern (LC), 5 species were Not Accessed (NA), and 4 species were Critically Endangered (CE), 3 species were Near Threatened (NT), 2 species were Vulnerable (V) and 1 was Endangered (E). A variety of threats like sporadic fire, cattle grazing, mining and illegal Non Timber Forest Product collection by local communities affecting the safe nesting, roosting sites and prey base and eventually the population size. The protection of breeding, roosting and feeding sites to help in the conservation of raptors, awareness and education programmes for people that contribute in raptors conservation. Identification is one key to understanding the biology of a species, it might then be possible to develop conservation strategies to ensure the future of the raptors.
The study was aimed to isolate myxozoan parasites infecting the native carp Schizothorax niger (Heckel) commonly called chush collected from fresh water ecosystems of Wullar Lake. Various organs were studied for the presence myxozoan infection. Results revealed prevalence rate of 20% infected with Myxobolus nigerae n. sp. Parasitological examination was done under stereozoom binocular microscope which revealed multiple minute plasmodia on the gills which on rupturing liberated myxospores. Identification upto species level was done on the basis of morphological and morphometric attributes of the myxospores in fresh and in stained preparations. Myxospores of M. nigerae n. sp. were ovoidal or subspherical in frontal view, having broad anterior end and narrow rounded posterior measuring 6.66 x 5.0μm. Polar capsules two, equal, oval in shape with pointed anterior end, measuring 3.33×1.66 μm. Parietal folds and intercapsular process (ICP) absent. Sporoplasm agranular, homogeneous and hemispherical. Sporoplasm agranular, homogenous with a nucleus measuring 0.9μm in diameter. Iodinophilous vacuole present, measuring 1.2μm in diameter.